Testing, Implementation, and Evolution of Seeding Concepts—A Review

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  • 1 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
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Abstract

In this paper, testing, implementation, and evolution of both static and dynamic seeding concepts are reviewed. A brief review of both waterspray and hygroscopic seeding is first presented. This is followed by reviews of static seeding of stable orographic clouds and supercooled cumuli. We conclude with a review of dynamic seeding concepts with particular focus on the Florida studies.

It is concluded that it is encouraging that our testing procedures have evolved from single-response-variable “blackbox” experiments to randomized experiments that attempt to test a number of components in the hypothesized chain of physical responses to seeding. It is cautioned, however, that changes in the seeding strategy to optimize detection of a physical response (in any of the intermediate links in the hypothesized chain of responses) can have an adverse effect upon rainfall on the ground.

Abstract

In this paper, testing, implementation, and evolution of both static and dynamic seeding concepts are reviewed. A brief review of both waterspray and hygroscopic seeding is first presented. This is followed by reviews of static seeding of stable orographic clouds and supercooled cumuli. We conclude with a review of dynamic seeding concepts with particular focus on the Florida studies.

It is concluded that it is encouraging that our testing procedures have evolved from single-response-variable “blackbox” experiments to randomized experiments that attempt to test a number of components in the hypothesized chain of physical responses to seeding. It is cautioned, however, that changes in the seeding strategy to optimize detection of a physical response (in any of the intermediate links in the hypothesized chain of responses) can have an adverse effect upon rainfall on the ground.

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