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Secondary Ice Production: Current State of the Science and Recommendations for the Future

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  • 1 Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 2 Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
  • 3 SPEC Inc., Boulder, Colorado
  • 4 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • 5 Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 6 Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 7 School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
  • 8 Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany
  • 9 Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • 10 Blaise Pascal University, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 11 NCAR, Boulder, Colorado
  • 12 Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 13 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • 14 British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • 15 Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois
  • 16 Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • 17 Earth Observing Laboratory, NCAR, Boulder, Colorado
  • 18 School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
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Abstract

Measured ice crystal concentrations in natural clouds at modest supercooling (temperature ~>−10°C) are often orders of magnitude greater than the number concentration of primary ice nucleating particles. Therefore, it has long been proposed that a secondary ice production process must exist that is able to rapidly enhance the number concentration of the ice population following initial primary ice nucleation events. Secondary ice production is important for the prediction of ice crystal concentration and the subsequent evolution of some types of clouds, but the physical basis of the process is not understood and the production rates are not well constrained. In November 2015 an international workshop was held to discuss the current state of the science and future work to constrain and improve our understanding of secondary ice production processes. Examples and recommendations for in situ observations, remote sensing, laboratory investigations, and modeling approaches are presented.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: Paul Field, paul.field@metoffice.gov.uk

Abstract

Measured ice crystal concentrations in natural clouds at modest supercooling (temperature ~>−10°C) are often orders of magnitude greater than the number concentration of primary ice nucleating particles. Therefore, it has long been proposed that a secondary ice production process must exist that is able to rapidly enhance the number concentration of the ice population following initial primary ice nucleation events. Secondary ice production is important for the prediction of ice crystal concentration and the subsequent evolution of some types of clouds, but the physical basis of the process is not understood and the production rates are not well constrained. In November 2015 an international workshop was held to discuss the current state of the science and future work to constrain and improve our understanding of secondary ice production processes. Examples and recommendations for in situ observations, remote sensing, laboratory investigations, and modeling approaches are presented.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: Paul Field, paul.field@metoffice.gov.uk
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