• Abarca, S. F., and K. L. Corbosiero, 2011: Secondary eyewall formation in WRF simulations of Hurricanes Rita and Katrina (2005). Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L07802, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abarca, S. F., and M. T. Montgomery, 2013: Essential dynamics of secondary eyewall formation. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 32163230, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0318.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abdullah, A. J., 1966: The spiral bands of a hurricane: A possible dynamic explanation. J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 367375, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1966)023<0367:TSBOAH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abraham, J., J. W. Strapp, C. Fogarty, and M. Wolde, 2004: Extratropical transition of Hurricane Michael: An aircraft investigation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 13231340, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-85-9-1323.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ackerman, S., and Coauthors, 2019: Satellites see the world’s atmosphere. A Century of Progress in Atmospheric and Related Sciences: Celebrating the American Meteorological Society Centennial, Meteor. Monogr., No. 59, Amer. Meteor. Soc., https://doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0009.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Adem, J., 1956: A series solution for the barotropic vorticity equation and its application to the study of atmospheric vortices. Tellus, 8, 364376, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v8i3.9010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agusti-Panareda, A., C. D. Thorncroft, G. C. Craig, and S. L. Gray, 2004: The extratropical transition of Hurricane Irene (1999): A potential-vorticity perspective. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 10471074, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.02.140.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aiyyer, A., and J. Molinari, 2008: MJO and tropical cyclogenesis in the Gulf of Mexico and eastern Pacific: Case study and idealized numerical modeling. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 26912704, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2348.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alpert, P., and B. U. Neeman, 1992: Cold small-scale cyclones over the eastern Mediterranean. Tellus, 44A, 173179, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v44i2.14952.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, E. L, 2004: Spray stress revisited. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 14291440, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<1429:SSR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, E. L, 2010: Spray-mediated enthalpy flux to the atmosphere and salt flux to the ocean in high winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 608619, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4232.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, E. L, and K. Emanuel, 2001: Effects of sea spray on tropical cyclone intensity. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 37413751, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<3741:EOSSOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, E. L, and J. Decosmo, 2002: The signature of sea spray in the HEXOS turbulent heat flux data. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 103, 303333, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014564513650.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, E. L, P. O. G. Persson, and J. E. Hare, 2008: A bulk turbulent air–sea flux algorithm for high-wind, spray conditions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 15811596, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JPO3813.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andreas, E. L, L. Mahrt, and D. Vickers, 2015: An improved bulk air–sea surface flux algorithm, including spray-mediated transfer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 141, 642654, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2424.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anthes, R. A., Ed., 1982: Tropical Cyclones: Their Evolution, Structure and Effects. Meteor. Monogr., No. 41, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 298 pp.

  • Anwender, D., P. A. Harr, and S. C. Jones, 2008: Predictability associated with the downstream impacts of the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: Case studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 32263247, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2249.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atallah, E. H., and L. F. Bosart, 2003: The extratropical transition and precipitation distribution of Hurricane Floyd (1999). Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 10631081, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<1063:TETAPD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atlas, R., V. Tallapragada, and S. Gopalakrishnan, 2015: Advances in tropical cyclone intensity forecasts. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 49, 149160, https://doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.49.6.2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balaguru, K., P. Chang, R. Saravanan, L. R. Leung, Z. Xu, M. Li, and J.-S. Hsieh, 2012: Ocean barrier layers’ effect on tropical cyclone intensification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 14 34314 347, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1201364109.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldini, L. M., and Coauthors, 2016: Persistent northward North Atlantic tropical cyclone track migration over the past five centuries. Sci. Rep., 6, 37522, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37522.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ballenzweig, E. M., 1959: Relation of long-period circulation anomalies to tropical storm formation and motion. J. Meteor., 16, 121139, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1959)016<0121:ROLPCA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bao, J.-W., C. W. Fairall, S. A. Michelson, and L. Bianco, 2011: Parameterizations of sea-spray impact on the air–sea momentum and heat fluxes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 37813797, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00007.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, G. M., and K. Sieckman, 1984: The environment of fast- and slow-moving tropical mesoscale convective cloud lines. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 17821794, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1782:TEOFAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, G. M., E. J. Zipser, D. Jorgensen, and F. Marks Jr., 1983: Mesoscale and convective structure of a hurricane rainband. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 21252137, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<2125:MACSOA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrett, B. S., and L. M. Leslie, 2009: Links between tropical cyclone activity and Madden–Julian oscillation phase in the North Atlantic and northeast Pacific basins. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 727744, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2602.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartels, D. L., and R. A. Maddox, 1991: Midlevel cyclonic vortices generated by mesoseale convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 104118, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<0104:MCVGBM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauer, P., A. Thorpe, and G. Brunet, 2015: The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction. Nature, 525, 47, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14956.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, G. D., and M. Chelliah, 2006: Leading tropical modes associated with interannual and multidecadal fluctuations in North Atlantic hurricane activity. J. Climate, 19, 590612, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3659.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, M. M., and M. T. Montgomery, 2008: Observed structure, evolution, and potential intensity of category 5 Hurricane Isabel (2003) from 12 to 14 September. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 20232046, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007MWR1858.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, M. M., M. T. Montgomery, and K. Emanuel, 2012: Air-sea enthalpy and momentum exchange at major hurricane wind speeds observed during CBLAST. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 31973222, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0276.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., and I. Ginis, 2000: Real-case simulations of hurricane–ocean interaction using a high-resolution coupled model: Effects on hurricane intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 917946, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0917:RCSOHO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., I. Ginis, and Y. Kurihara, 1993a: Numerical simulations of tropical cyclone-ocean interaction with a high-resolution coupled model. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 23 24523 263, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JD02370.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., R. J. Ross, R. E. Tuleya, and Y. Kurihara, 1993b: Improvements in tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts using the GFDL initialization system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 20462061, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<2046:IITCTA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., I. Ginis, R. Tuleya, B. Thomas, and T. Marchok, 2007: The operational GFDL coupled hurricane–ocean prediction system and a summary of its performance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 39653989, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007MWR2032.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennetts, D. A., and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: Conditional symmetric instability—A possible explanation for frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 105, 945962, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49710544615.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bentley, A. M., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 2016: A dynamically based climatology of subtropical cyclones that undergo tropical transition in the North Atlantic basin. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 20492068, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0251.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergeron, T., 1954: The problem of tropical hurricanes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 80, 131164, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49708034402.

  • Bernaret, L., and Coauthors, 2015: Community support and transition of research to operations for the Hurricane Research and Forecast (HWRF) Model. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96, 953960, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00093.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bessafi, M., and M. C. Wheeler, 2006: Modulation of south Indian Ocean tropical cyclones by the Madden–Julian oscillation and convectively coupled equatorial waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 638656, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3087.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betts, A. K., 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 677691, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711247307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beven, J., Jr., and Coauthors, 2008: Atlantic hurricane season of 2005. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 11091173, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007MWR2074.1.

  • Bishop, C. H., and A. J. Thorpe, 1994: Frontal wave stability during moist deformation frontogensis. Part I: Linear wave dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 852873, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<0852:FWSDMD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bister, M., and K. A. Emanuel, 1997: The genesis of Hurricane Guillermo: TEXMEX analyses and a modeling study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 26622682, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2662:TGOHGT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bister, M., and K. A. Emanuel, 1998: Dissipative heating and hurricane intensity. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 65, 233240, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01030791.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bister, M., and K. A. Emanuel, 2002: Low frequency variability of tropical cyclone potential intensity: 1. Interannual to interdecadel variability. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000776.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1938: Saturated-adiabatic ascent of air through dry-adiabatically descending environment. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 64, 325330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, M. L., J. F. Gamache, F. D. Marks Jr., C. E. Samsury, and H. E. Willoughby, 2002: Eastern Pacific Hurricanes Jimena of 1991 and Olivia of 1994: The effects of vertical shear on structure and intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 22912312, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<2291:EPHJOA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, P. G., and R. A. Anthes, 1971: On the asymmetric structure of the tropical cyclone outflow layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 13481366, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1971)028<1348:OTASOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, P. G., and F. Marks, 1991: The structure of an eyewall meso-vortex in Hurricane Hugo. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 579–582.

  • Black, P. G., and Coauthors, 2007: Air–sea exchange in hurricanes: Synthesis of observations from the coupled boundary layer air–sea transfer experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 357374, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-3-357.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blair, A., I. Ginis, T. Hara, and E. Ulhorn, 2017: Impact of Langmuir turbulence on upper ocean response to Hurricane Edouard: Model and observations. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 97129724, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC012956.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blender, R., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 1997: Identification of cyclone-track regimes in the North Atlantic. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 727741, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712353910.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., 1976: Synoptic-scale deformation and tropical cloud bands. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 208 pp.

  • Bluestein, H. B., and M. H. Jain, 1985: Formation of mesoscale lines of precipitation: Severe squall lines in Oklahoma during the spring. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 17111732, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<1711:FOMLOP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., and F. D. Marks Jr., 1987: On the structure of the eyewall of Hurricane Diana (1984): Comparison of radar and visual characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 25422552, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<2542:OTSOTE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bode, L., and R. K. Smith, 1975: A parameterization of the boundary layer of a tropical cyclone. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 8, 319, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02579390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogomolov, V. A., 1977: Dynamics of vorticity on a sphere. Fluid Dyn., 12, 863870, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01090320.

  • Boldt, K. V., P. Lane, J. D. Woodruff, and J. P. Donnelly, 2010: Calibrating a sedimentary record of overwash from southeastern New England using modeled historic hurricane surges. Mar. Geol., 275, 127139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2010.05.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Booth, B. B. B., N. J. Dunstone, P. R. Halloran, T. Andrews, and N. Bellouin, 2012: Aerosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North Atlantic climate variability. Nature, 484, 228232, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10946.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bosart, L. F., and F. Sanders, 1981: The Johnstown flood of July 1977: A long-lived convective system. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 16161642, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1616:TJFOJA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bosart, L. F., and J. A. Bartlo, 1991: Tropical storm formation in a baroclinic environment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 19792013, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<1979:TSFIAB>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bosart, L. F., W. E. Bracken, J. Molinari, C. S. Velden, and P. G. Black, 2000: Environmental influences on the rapid intensification of Hurricane Opal (1995) over the Gulf of Mexico. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 322352, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0322:EIOTRI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bove, M. C., J. B. Elsner, C. W. Landsea, X. Niu, and J. J. O’Brien, 1998: Effect of El Niño on U.S. landfalling hurricanes, revisited. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 24772482, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2477:EOENOO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowman, K. P., and M. D. Fowler, 2015: The diurnal cycle of precipitation in tropical cyclones. J. Climate, 28, 53255334, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00804.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, C. M., J. D. Woodruff, D. P. Lane, and J. P. Donnelly, 2013: Tropical cyclone wind speed constraints from resultant storm surge deposition: A 2500 year reconstruction of hurricane activity from St. Marks, FL. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 14, 29933008, https://doi.org/10.1002/ggge.20217.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brandon, C. M., J. D. Woodruff, J. P. Donnelly, and R. M. Sullivan, 2014: How unique was Hurricane Sandy? Sedimentary reconstructions of extreme flooding from New York harbor. Sci. Rep., 4, 7366, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep07366.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, S. A., and W.-K. Tao, 2000: Sensitivity of high-resolution simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991) to planetary boundary layer parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 39413961, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)129<3941:SOHRSO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, S. A., and L. Wu, 2007: A numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part II: Shear and the organization of eyewall vertical motion. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 11791194, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3336.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, S. A., and Coauthors, 2013: NASA’s Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 345363, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00232.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bravo, J., J. P. Donnelly, and J. Dowling, 1997: Sedimentary evidence for the 1938 hurricane in southern New England. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Ft. Collins, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 395–396.

  • Bretherton, C. S., and M. F. Khairoutdinov, 2004: Convective self-aggregation in large cloud-resolving model simulations of radiative convective equilibrium. 26th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami Beach, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 12B.4, https://ams.confex.com/ams/26HURR/techprogram/paper_76059.htm.

  • Bretherton, C. S., P. N. Blossey, and M. F. Khairoutdinov, 2005: An energy-balance analysis of deep convective self-aggregation above uniform SST. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 42734292, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3614.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruyère, C. L., G. J. Holland, and E. Towler, 2012: Investigating the use of a genesis potential index for tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin. J. Climate, 25, 86118626, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00619.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., 2012: Effects of surface exchange coefficients and turbulence length scales on the intensity and structure of numerically simulated hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 11251143, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00231.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., and R. Rotunno, 2009a: Evaluation of an analytical model for the maximum intensity of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 30423060, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS3038.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., and R. Rotunno, 2009b: The maximum intensity of tropical cyclones in axisymmetric numerical model simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 17701789, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2709.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burpee, R. W., J. L. Franklin, S. J. Lord, R. E. Tuleya, and S. D. Aberson, 1996: The impact of omega dropwindsondes on operational hurricane track forecast models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 925933, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0925:TIOODO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Businger, S., 1985: The synoptic climatology of polar low outbreaks. Tellus, 37A, 419432, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v37i5.11686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Byers, H. R., 1944: General Meteorology. McGraw-Hill, 645 pp.

  • Byers, H. R., and R. R. Braham Jr., 1948: Thunderstorm structure and circulation. J. Meteor., 5, 7186, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1948)005<0071:TSAC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., 2013: Global and regional aspects of tropical cyclone activity in the CMIP5 models. J. Climate, 26, 98809902, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00549.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., and A. H. Sobel, 2005: Western North Pacific tropical cyclone intensity and ENSO. J. Climate, 18, 29963006, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3457.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., and S. M. Hsiang, 2016: Tropical cyclones: From the influence of climate to their socioeconomic impacts. Extreme Events: Observations, Modeling, and Economics, M. Chavez, M. Ghil, and J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Eds., Wiley-Blackwell, 438 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., K. A. Emanuel, and A. H. Sobel, 2007a: Use of a genesis potential index to diagnose ENSO effects on tropical cyclone genesis. J. Climate, 20, 48194834, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4282.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., A. W. Robertson, S. J. Gaffney, P. Smyth, and M. Ghil, 2007b: Cluster analysis of typhoon tracks. Part I: General properties. J. Climate, 20, 36353653, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4188.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., A. W. Robertson, S. J. Gaffney, P. Smyth, and M. Ghil, 2007c: Cluster analysis of typhoon tracks. Part II: Large-scale circulation and ENSO. J. Climate, 20, 36543676, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4203.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., A. H. Sobel, A. G. Barnston, and K. A. Emanuel, 2007d: Tropical cyclone genesis potential index in climate models. Tellus, 59A, 428443, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2007.00238.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camargo, S. J., M. C. Wheeler, and A. H. Sobel, 2009: Diagnosis of the MJO modulation of tropical cyclogenesis using an empirical index. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 30613074, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS3101.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caron, L. P., M. Boudreault, and C. L. Bruyere, 2015: Changes in large-scale controls of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity with the phases of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate Dyn., 44, 18011821, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2186-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavicchia, L., H. von Storch, and S. Gualdi, 2014: A long-term climatology of medicanes. Climate Dyn., 43, 11831195, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1893-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Challa, M., and R. L. Pfeffer, 1980: Effects of eddy fluxes of angular momentum on model hurricane development. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 16031618, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<1603:EOEFOA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., 1985: Tropical cyclone activity in the northwest Pacific in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 599606, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<0599:TCAITN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., 2000: Tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific associated with El Niño and La Niña events. J. Climate, 13, 29602972, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2960:TCAOTW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., 2005a: Interannual and interdecadal variations of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89, 143152, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-005-0126-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., 2005b: The physics of tropical cyclone motion. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37, 99128, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fluid.37.061903.175702.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., and R. T. Williams, 1987: Analytical and numerical studies of the beta-effect in tropical cyclone motion. Part I: Zero mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 12571265, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<1257:AANSOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chand, S. S., and K. J. E. Walsh, 2010: The influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on tropical cyclone activity in the Fiji region. J. Climate, 23, 868886, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3316.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chand, S. S., and K. J. E. Walsh, 2011: Influence of ENSO on tropical cyclone intensity in the Fiji region. J. Climate, 24, 40964108, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4178.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chane Ming, F., C. Ibrahim, C. Barthe, S. Jolivet, P. Keckhut, Y. A. Liou, and Y. Kuleshov, 2014: Observation and a numerical study of gravity waves during tropical cyclone Ivan (2008). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 641658, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-641-2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, S. W., and R. A. Anthes, 1979: Mutual response of the tropical cyclone and the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 128135, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0128:TMROTT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charabi, Y., Ed., 2010: Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change. Springer, 373 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J. G., and M. E. Stern, 1962: On the stability of internal baroclinic jets in a rotating atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 19, 159172, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1962)019<0159:OTSOIB>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J. G., and A. Eliassen, 1964: On the growth of the hurricane depression. J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 6875, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1964)021<0068:OTGOTH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J. G., R. Fjørtoft, and J. Von Neumann, 1950: Numerical integration of the barotropic vorticity equation. Tellus, 2, 237254, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v2i4.8607.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chavas, D. R., and K. A. Emanuel, 2010: A QuickSCAT climatology of tropical cyclone size. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18816, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044558.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chavas, D. R., and K. A. Emanuel, 2014: Equilibrium tropical cyclone size in an idealized state of axisymmetric radiative–convective equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 16631680, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0155.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G., 2011: A comparison of precipitation distribution of two landfalling tropical cyclones during the extratropical transition. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1390, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-011-0148-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S. S., and W. M. Frank, 1993: A numerical study of the genesis of extratropical convective mesovortices. Part I: Evolution and dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 24012426, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2401:ANSOTG>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., S.-Y. Wang, M.-C. Yen, and A. J. Clark, 2009: Impact of the intraseasonal variability of the western North Pacific large-scale circulation on tropical cyclone tracks. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 646666, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008WAF2222186.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y., G. Brunet, and M. K. Yau, 2003: Spiral bands in a simulated hurricane. Part II: Wave activity diagnostics. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 12391256, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2003)60<1239:SBIASH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheung, K. F., L. Tang, J. P. Donnelly, E. M. Scileppi, K.-B. Liu, X.-Z. Mao, S. H. Houston, and R. J. Murnane, 2007: Numerical modeling and field evidence of coastal overwash in southern New England from Hurricane Bob and implications for paleotempestology. J. Geophys. Res., 112, F03024, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christophersen, H., A. Aksoy, J. Dunion, and K. Sellwood, 2017: The impact of NASA Global Hawk unmanned aircraft dropwindsonde observations on tropical cyclone track, intensity, and structure: Case studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 18171830, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-16-0332.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, P.-S., and J. Wang, 1997: Tropical cyclone occurrences in the vicinity of Hawaii: Are the differences between El Niño and non–El Niño years significant? J. Climate, 10, 26832689, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2683:TCOITV>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chylek, P., and G. Lesins, 2008: Multidecadal variability of Atlantic hurricane activity: 1851-2007. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D22106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010036.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cione, J. J., E. A. Kalina, E. W. Uhlhorn, A. M. Farber, and B. Damiano, 2016: Coyote unmanned aircraft system observations in Hurricane Edouard (2014). Earth Space Sci., 3, 370380, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016EA000187.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claud, C., B. Alhammoud, B. M. Funatsu, and J.-P. Chaboureau, 2010: Mediterranean hurricanes: Large-scale environment and convective and precipitating areas from satellite microwave observations. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 21992213, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-2199-2010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cochran, D. R., 1976: Unusual tropical development from a mid-Pacific cold low. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 804808, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1976)104<0804:UTDFAM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colle, B. A., 2003: Numerical simulations of the extratropical transition of Floyd (1999): Structural evolution and responsible mechanisms for the heavy rainfall over the northeast United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 29052926, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2905:NSOTET>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, J. M., and K. Walsh, Eds., 2017: Hurricanes and Climate Change. Vol. 3, Springer, 255 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2002: The effects of vertical wind shear on the distribution of convection in tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 21102123, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<2110:TEOVWS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2003: The relationship between storm motion, vertical wind shear, and convective asymmetries in tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 366376, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<0366:TRBSMV>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., J. Molinari, A. R. Aiyyer, and M. L. Black, 2006: The structure and evolution of Hurricane Elena (1985). Part II: Convective asymmetries and evidence for vortex Rossby waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 30733091, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3250.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, G. C., and S. L. Gray, 1996: CISK or WISHE as the mechanism for tropical cyclone intensification. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 35283540, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<3528:COWATM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daingerfield, L. H., 1921: Kona storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 49, 327329, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1921)49<327:KS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D’Asaro, E. A., 2003: The ocean boundary layer below Hurricane Dennis. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 561579, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0561:TOBLBH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, N. E., G. J. Holland, J. L. McBride, and T. D. Keenan, 1990: On the formation of AMEX tropical cyclones Irma and Jason. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 19812000, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118<1981:OTFOAT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, C. A., and L. F. Bosart, 2003: Baroclinically induced tropical cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 27302747, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2730:BITC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, C. A., and L. Bosart, 2004: The TT problem. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 16571662, https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/BAMS-85-11-1657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, C. A., S. C. Jones, and M. Riemer, 2008: Hurricane vortex dynamics during Atlantic extratropical transition. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 714736, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2488.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dean, L., K. Emanuel, and D. R. Chavas, 2009: On the size distribution of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L14803, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039051.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeCosmo, J., K. B. Katsaros, S. D. Smith, R. J. Anderson, W. A. Oost, K. Bumke, and H. Chadwick, 1996: Air-sea exchange of water vapor and sensible heat: The Humidity Exchange Over the Sea (HEXOS) results. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12 00112 016, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC03796.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delworth, T. L., and M. E. Mann, 2000: Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Climate Dyn., 16, 661676, https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820000075.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., 1996: The effect of vertical shear on tropical cyclone intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 20762088, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2076:TEOVSO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan, 1994: A Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic basin. Wea. Forecasting, 9, 209220, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0209:ASHIPS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan, 1997: An operational evaluation of a Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS). Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Ft. Collins, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 280–281.

  • DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan, 1999: An updated Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic and eastern North Pacific basins. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 326337, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0326:AUSHIP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., J. Kaplan, and J.-J. Baik, 1993: Upper-level eddy angular momentum fluxes and tropical cyclone intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 11331147, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<1133:ULEAMF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., J. A. Knaff, and B. H. Connell, 2001: A tropical cyclone genesis parameter for the tropical Atlantic. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 219233, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0219:ATCGPF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMaria, M., C. R. Sampson, J. A. Knaff, and K. D. Musgrave, 2014: Is tropical cyclone intensity guidance improving? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 387398, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00240.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demuth, J. L., M. DeMaria, and J. A. Knaff, 2006: Improvement of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit tropical cyclone intensity and size estimation algorithms. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 15731581, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2429.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dengler, K., and M. J. Reeder, 1997: The effects of convection and baroclinicity on the motion of tropical-cyclone-like vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 699725, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712353909.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diaz, H. F., and R. S. Pulwarty, Eds., 2012: Climate and Socioeconomic Impacts. Springer, 292 pp.

  • Didlake, A. C., Jr., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2013: Dynamics of the stratiform sector of a tropical cyclone rainband. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 18911911, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0245.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diercks, J. W., and R. A. Anthes, 1976: Diagnostic studies of spiral rainbands in a nonlinear hurricane model. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 959975, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<0959:DSOSRI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donelan, M. A., B. K. Haus, N. Reul, W. J. Plant, M. Stiassnie, H. C. Graber, O. B. Brown, and E. S. Saltzman, 2004: On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019460.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J. P., 2005: Evidence of past intense tropical cyclones from backbarrier salt pond sediments: A case study from Isla de Culebrita, Puerto Rico, USA. J. Coastal Res., SI42, 201210, https://www.jstor.org/stable/25736985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J. P., and J. D. Woodruff, 2007: Intense hurricane activity over the past 5,000 years controlled by El Niño and the west African monsoon. Nature, 447, 465468, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05834.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J. P., and Coauthors, 2001a: 700 yr sedimentary record of intense hurricane landfalls in southern New England. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 113, 714727, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113<0714:YSROIH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J. P., S. Roll, M. Wengren, J. Butler, R. Lederer, and T. Webb III, 2001b: Sedimentary evidence of intense hurricane strikes from New Jersey. Geology, 29, 615618, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0615:SEOIHS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J. P., J. Butler, S. Roll, M. Wengren, and T. Webb, 2004: A backbarrier overwash record of intense storms from Brigantine, New Jersey. Mar. Geol., 210, 107121, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.05.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doyle, J. D., and Coauthors, 2017: A view of tropical cyclones from above: The tropical cyclone intensity experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 21132134, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0055.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duke, W. L., 1985a: Hummocky cross-stratification, tropical hurricanes, and intense winter storms. Sedimentology, 32, 167194, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1985.tb00502.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duke, W. L., 1985b: The paleogeography of Paleozoic and Mesozoic storm depositional systems: A discussion. J. Geol., 93, 8890, https://doi.org/10.1086/628923.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duke, W. L., R. W. C. Arnott, and R. J. Cheel, 1991: Shelf sandstones and hummocky cross-stratification: New insights on a stormy debate. Geology, 19, 625628, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0625:SSAHCS>2.3.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunion, J. P., C. D. Thorncroft, and C. S. Velden, 2014: The tropical cyclone diurnal cycle of mature hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 39003919, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00191.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunkerton, T. J., M. T. Montgomery, and Z. Wang, 2009: Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: Easterly waves. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 55875646, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5587-2009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, G. E., 1940: Cyclogenesis in the tropical Atlantic. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 21, 215229, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-21.6.215.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, G. E., 1951: Tropical cyclones. Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 887–901.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dunstone, N. J., D. M. Smith, B. B. B. Booth, L. Hermanson, and R. Eade, 2013: Anthropogenic aerosol forcing of Atlantic tropical storms. Nat. Geosci., 6, 534539, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1854.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dvorak, V. F., 1975: Tropical cyclone intensity analysis and forecasting from satellite imagery. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103, 420430, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0420:TCIAAF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dvorak, V. F., 1984: Tropical cyclone intensity analysis using satellite data. NOAA Tech. Rep. NESDIS 11, 45 pp., http://satepsanone.nesdis.noaa.gov/pub/Publications/Tropical/Dvorak_1984.pdf.

  • Ellis, R., and S. Businger, 2010: Helical circulations in the typhoon boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D06205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elsberry, R. L., and P. A. Harr, 2008: Tropical cyclone structure (TCS08) field experiment: Science basis, observational platforms, and strategy. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 209231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elsberry, R. L., T. S. Fraim, and R. N. Trapnell, 1976: A mixed layer model of the oceanic thermal response to hurricanes. J. Geophys. Res., 81, 11531162, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC081i006p01153.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elsberry, R. L., B. C. Diehl, J. C.-L. Chan, P. A. Harr, G. J. Holland, M. Lander, T. Neta, and D. Thom, 1990: ONR tropical cyclone motion research initiative: Field experiment summary. Tech. Rep. NPS-MR-91-001, 107 pp., http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a231152.pdf.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Elsner, J. B., and T. H. Jagger, Eds., 2009: Hurricanes and Climate Change. Vol. 1, Springer, 419 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Elsner, J. B., B. H. Bossak, and X. F. Niu, 2001: Secular changes to the ENSO-U.S. Hurricane relationship. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 41234126, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013669.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elsner, J. B., R. E. Hodges, J. C. Malmstadt, and K. N. Scheitlin, Eds., 2014: Hurricanes and Climate Change. Vol. 2, Springer, 255 pp.

  • Emanuel, K. A., 1986: An air-sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: Steady state maintenance. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 585605, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0585:AASITF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 1987: The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nature, 326, 483485, https://doi.org/10.1038/326483a0.

  • Emanuel, K. A., 1988: The maximum intensity of hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 11431155, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1143:TMIOH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 1989: The finite-amplitude nature of tropical cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 34313456, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<3431:TFANOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 1995: The behavior of a simple hurricane model using a convective scheme based on subcloud-layer entropy equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 39603968, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<3960:TBOASH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 1997: Some aspects of hurricane inner-core dynamics and energetics. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 10141026, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<1014:SAOHIC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2000: A statistical analysis of tropical cyclone intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 11391152, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1139:ASAOTC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2001: The contribution of tropical cyclones to the oceans’ meridional heat transport. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14 77114 781, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900641.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2003: A similarity hypothesis for air-sea exchange at extreme wind speeds. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 14201428, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<1420:ASHFAE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2004: Tropical cyclone energetics and structure. Atmospheric Turbulence and Mesoscale Meteorology, E. Federovich, R. Rotunno, and B. Stevens, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 165–192, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511735035.010.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2005a: Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes. Oxford University Press, 304 pp.

  • Emanuel, K. A., 2005b: Genesis and maintenance of “Mediterranean hurricanes.” Adv. Geosci., 2, 217220, https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-2-217-2005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2010: Tropical cyclone activity downscaled from NOAA-CIRES reanalysis, 1908–1958. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2, https://doi.org/10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2012: Self-stratification of tropical cyclone outflow: Part II: Implications for storm intensification. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 988996, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0177.1; Corrigendum, 75, 21552156, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-18-0047.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 2013: Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 12 21912 224, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1301293110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., and R. Rotunno, 1989: Polar lows as arctic hurricanes. Tellus, 41A, 117, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.1989.tb00362.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., and D. Nolan, 2004: Tropical cyclone activity and global climate. 26th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami Beach, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 10A.2, https://ams.confex.com/ams/26HURR/techprogram/paper_75463.htm.

  • Emanuel, K. A., and R. Rotunno, 2011: Self-stratification of tropical cyclone outflow. Part I: Implications for storm structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 22362249, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-10-05024.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., and A. H. Sobel, 2013: Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, 447458, https://doi.org/10.1002/jame.20032.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., and F. Zhang, 2017: The role of inner-core moisture in tropical cyclone predictability and practical forecast skill. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 23152324, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0008.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., R. Rotunno, and D. K. Lilly, 1985: An air-sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Houston, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 27–28.

  • Emanuel, K. A., K. Speer, R. Rotunno, R. Srivastava, and M. Molina, 1995: Hypercanes: A possible link in global extinction scenarios. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 13 75513 765, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JD01368.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., J. Callaghan, and P. Otto, 2008a: A hypothesis for the redevelopment of warm-core cyclones over northern Australia. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 38633872, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2409.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., R. Sundararajan, and J. Williams, 2008b: Hurricanes and global warming: Results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 347367, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-89-3-347.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enfield, D. B., and L. Cid-Serrano, 2010: Secular and multidecadal warmings in the North Atlantic and their relationships with major hurricane activity. Int. J. Climatol., 30, 174184, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1881.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ernst, J. A., and M. Matson, 1983: A Mediterranean tropical storm? Weather, 38, 332337, https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1983.tb04818.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Espy, J. P., 1841: The Philosophy of Storms. Little and Brown, 552 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, C., and R. E. Hart, 2008: Analysis of the wind field evolution associated with the extratropical transition of Bonnie (1998). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 20472065, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007MWR2051.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, C., R. S. Schumacher, and T. J. Galarneau Jr., 2011: Sensitivity in the overland reintensification of tropical cyclone Erin (2007) to near-surface soil moisture characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 38483870, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011MWR3593.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, C., and Coauthors, 2017: The extratropical transition of tropical cyclones. Part I: Cyclone evolution and direct impacts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 43174344, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0027.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J. L., and R. J. Allan, 1992: El Niño/Southern Oscillation modification to the structure of the monsoon and tropical cyclone activity in the Australasian region. Int. J. Climatol., 12, 611623, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370120607.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J. L., and R. E. Hart, 2003: Objective indicators of the life cycle evolution of extratropical transition for Atlantic tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 909925, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<0909:OIOTLC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J. L., and M. P. Guishard, 2009: Atlantic subtropical storms. Part I: Diagnostic criteria and composite analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 20652080, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009MWR2468.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J. L., and A. Braun, 2012: A climatology of subtropical cyclones in the South Atlantic. J. Climate, 25, 73287340, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00212.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, J. E. Hare, A. A.