Rainfall Fields in Israel and Jordan and the Effect of Cloud Seeding on Them

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  • 1 Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
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Abstract

Spatial correlation functions of daily rainfall were derived separately for various parts of the study area and for unseeded and seeded days. The structure of respective rainfall fields was studied by means of the relationship between the geometry of iso-correlation contours of daily rainfall and the average geometry and/or kinematics of cloud systems that produce the rainfall. Results were obtained on 1) the prevalent direction of storm movement over the study area and 2) the change in size of rainfall areas under varying conditions.

Evidence is presented of an average increase of about 10 km in the dimensions of rainfall areas on seeded days. It is suggested that expanded rainfall areas have a twofold effect on the augmentation of the total yield of individual storms: 1) an increase of point rainfall resulting from prolonged exposure to moving cloud systems, and 2) an increase in the area thus affected. Consequently, the increase in water yield of a storm over the entire area covered by it, may not be fully represented by point measurements.

In the regional context, a contraction of storm areas was found in the transition to the arid zone. It is suggested that the size of rainfall areas is one of the fundamental factors controlling regional variations of rainfall as well as variations resulting from cloud seeding.

Abstract

Spatial correlation functions of daily rainfall were derived separately for various parts of the study area and for unseeded and seeded days. The structure of respective rainfall fields was studied by means of the relationship between the geometry of iso-correlation contours of daily rainfall and the average geometry and/or kinematics of cloud systems that produce the rainfall. Results were obtained on 1) the prevalent direction of storm movement over the study area and 2) the change in size of rainfall areas under varying conditions.

Evidence is presented of an average increase of about 10 km in the dimensions of rainfall areas on seeded days. It is suggested that expanded rainfall areas have a twofold effect on the augmentation of the total yield of individual storms: 1) an increase of point rainfall resulting from prolonged exposure to moving cloud systems, and 2) an increase in the area thus affected. Consequently, the increase in water yield of a storm over the entire area covered by it, may not be fully represented by point measurements.

In the regional context, a contraction of storm areas was found in the transition to the arid zone. It is suggested that the size of rainfall areas is one of the fundamental factors controlling regional variations of rainfall as well as variations resulting from cloud seeding.

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