Analysis of Recording Raingage Data for the Israeli II Experiment. Part I: Effects of Cloud Seeding on the Components of Daily Rainfall

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  • a Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
  • | b Department of Statistics and Division of Biostatistics, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627
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Abstract

Earlier Published analyses of the second Israeli randomized experiment (1969–75) were restricted to 24-h data; this paper provides more details which are based on continuous time data from recording raingages. The present analyses confirm that when cloud tops were warmer than −21°C, seeding increased the efficiency of precipitation. In the −21° to −11°C window, both amount and duration of rainfall increased by some 50%, but no extra rain events appeared. Extra rain events were apparently initiated by seeding when cloud-top temperatures were warmer (−11°C and above); however, this did not significantly increase the amount of rainfall. No effect of seeding was found when cloud tops were colder than −21°C. It appears that seeding makes the existing process of rain formation more effective and also inducts precipitation formation in some clouds that would not have precipitated naturally.

Abstract

Earlier Published analyses of the second Israeli randomized experiment (1969–75) were restricted to 24-h data; this paper provides more details which are based on continuous time data from recording raingages. The present analyses confirm that when cloud tops were warmer than −21°C, seeding increased the efficiency of precipitation. In the −21° to −11°C window, both amount and duration of rainfall increased by some 50%, but no extra rain events appeared. Extra rain events were apparently initiated by seeding when cloud-top temperatures were warmer (−11°C and above); however, this did not significantly increase the amount of rainfall. No effect of seeding was found when cloud tops were colder than −21°C. It appears that seeding makes the existing process of rain formation more effective and also inducts precipitation formation in some clouds that would not have precipitated naturally.

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