The Surface Sea Breeze: Applicability of Haurwitz-Type Theory

D. O. Staley Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

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Abstract

The Haurwitz sea-breeze theory, and modifications by Kusuda and Alpert, are not generally applicable to observed winds in coastal regions, in part because they make no allowance for spatial evolution of wind hodographs. This is demonstrated by integrating the Haurwitz equations of motion to find trajectories of air reaching the shoreline at various times of day through the action of a large-scale pressure gradient force. Hodographs and momentum advection are computed from the trajectories. Hodograph size, shape, and orientation depend on distance from the shoreline, friction, spatial distribution of the time-varying part of the geostrophic wind (that parallel to the shore), and other factors. Differences between the hodographs found here and those found by Haurwitz, or by Kusuda and Alpert are largely related to nonlinearity.

Abstract

The Haurwitz sea-breeze theory, and modifications by Kusuda and Alpert, are not generally applicable to observed winds in coastal regions, in part because they make no allowance for spatial evolution of wind hodographs. This is demonstrated by integrating the Haurwitz equations of motion to find trajectories of air reaching the shoreline at various times of day through the action of a large-scale pressure gradient force. Hodographs and momentum advection are computed from the trajectories. Hodograph size, shape, and orientation depend on distance from the shoreline, friction, spatial distribution of the time-varying part of the geostrophic wind (that parallel to the shore), and other factors. Differences between the hodographs found here and those found by Haurwitz, or by Kusuda and Alpert are largely related to nonlinearity.

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