• Beard, K. V., and H. R. Pruppacher, 1971: A wind tunnel investigation of the rate of evaporation of small water drops falling at terminal velocity in air. J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 1455–146.

  • Burrows, D. A., 1992: Evaluation of a two-dimensional kinematic cloud model using data from a central Sierra Nevada orographic cloud system. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 51–63.

  • Cooper, W. A., W. R. Sand, M. K. Politovich, and D. L. Veal, 1984:Effects of icing on performance of research aircraft. J. Aircr.,21, 708–715.

  • Cotton, W. R., G. J. Tripoli, R. M. Rauber, and E. A. Mulvihill, 1986:Numerical simulation of the effects of varying ice crystal nucleation rates and aggregation processes on orographic snowfall. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,25, 1658–1680.

  • Cox, G. P., 1988: Modelling precipitation in frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,114, 115–127.

  • Devulapalli, S. S. N., and J. L. Collett Jr., 1994: The influence of riming and frontal dynamics on winter precipitation chemistry in level terrain. Atmos. Res.,32, 203–213.

  • Dixon, R. W., L. Mosimann, B. Oberholzer, J. Staehelin, A. Waldvogel, and J. L. Collett Jr., 1995: The effect of riming on the ion concentration of winter precipitation. 1. A quantitative analysis of field measurements. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 11 517–11 527.

  • Ferrier, B. S., 1994: A double-moment multiple-phase four-class bulk ice scheme. Part I: Description. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 249–280.

  • Gayet, J.-F., P. Personne, and D. Guffond, 1992: Le givrage atmosphérique. Météorologie,43–44, 18–23.

  • Hall, W. D., and H. R. Pruppacher, 1976: The survival of ice particles falling from cirrus clouds in subsaturated air. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 1995–2006.

  • Hallett, J., and S. C. Mossop, 1974: Production of secondary ice particles during the riming process. Nature,249, 26–28.

  • Heggli, M. F., L. Vardiman, R. E. Stewart, and A. Huggins, 1983: Supercooled liquid water and ice crystal distributions within Sierra Nevada winter storms. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 1875–1886.

  • Heymsfield, A. J., 1977: Precipitation development in stratiform ice clouds: A microphysical and dynamical study. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 367–381.

  • Houze, R. A., Jr., P. V. Hobbs, P. H. Herzegh, and D. B. Parsons, 1979: Size distributions of precipitation particles in frontal clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 156–162.

  • Huo, Z., D.-L. Zhang, J. Gyakum, and A. Staniforth, 1995: A diagnostic analysis of the superstorm of March 1993. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1740–1761.

  • Kessler, E., 1969: On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulations, Meteor. Monogr., No. 32, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 pp.

  • Kilambi, E., S. Laroche, and I. Zawadzki, 1995: An operational 3D wind retrieval algorithm. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 258–260.

  • Laroche, S., and I. Zawadzki, 1994: A variational analysis method for the retrieval of three-dimensional wind field from single-Doppler radar data. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2664–2682.

  • Locatelli, J. D., and P. V. Hobbs, 1974: Fallspeeds and masses of solid precipitation particles. J. Geophys. Res.,79, 2185–2197.

  • Meyers, M. P., P. J. DeMott, and W. R. Cotton, 1992: New primary ice-nucleation parameterizations in an explicit cloud model. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 708–721.

  • Modica, G. D., S. T. Heckman, and R. M. Rasmussen, 1994: An application of an explicit microphysics mesoscale model to a regional icing events. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 53–63.

  • Murakami, M., 1990: Numerical modeling of dynamical and microphysical evolution of an isolated convective cloud. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,68, 107–128.

  • Murakami, M., Y. Yamada, T. Matsuo, H. Mizuno, and K. Morikawa, 1992: Microphysical structures of warm-frontal clouds—The 20 June 1987 case study. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,70, 877–894.

  • Passarelli, R. E., Jr., 1978: Theoretical and observational study of snow-size spectra and snowflake aggregation efficiencies. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 882–889.

  • Perkins, P. J., 1995: Developments in aircraft ice protection during sixty years of research. Int. Icing Symp., Montreal, PQ, Canada, Amer. Helicopter Soc., 5-1–5-8.

  • Pobanz, B. M., J. D. Marwitz, and M. K. Politovich, 1994: Conditions associated with large-drop regions. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 1366–1372.

  • Politovich, M. K., 1989: Aircraft icing caused by large supercooled droplets. J. Appl. Meteor.,28, 856–868.

  • Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett, 1997: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. Kluwer Academic, 955 pp.

  • Rasmussen, R., and Coauthors, 1992: Winter Icing and Storm Project (WISP). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 951–974.

  • Rauber, R. M., and A. Tokay, 1991: An explanation for the existence of supercooled water at the top of cold clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 1005–1023.

  • Rauber, R. M., D. Feng, L. O. Grant, and J. B. Snider, 1986: The characteristics and distribution of cloud water over the mountains of northern Colorado during wintertime storms. Part I: Temporal variations. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,25, 468–488.

  • Rogers, R. R., and M. K. Yau, 1989: A Short Course in Cloud Physics.Pergamon Press, 293 pp.

  • Rogers, R. R., S. A. Cohn, W. L. Ecklund, J. S. Wilson, and D. A. Carter, 1994: Experience from one year of operating a boundary-layer profiler in the center of a large city. Ann. Geophys.,12, 529–540.

  • Sassen, K., K. N. Liou, S. Kinne, and M. Griffin, 1985: Highly supercooled cirrus cloud water: Confirmation and climatic implications, Science,227, 411–413.

  • Sassen, K., A. W. Huggins, A. B. Long, J. B. Snider, and R. Meitin, 1990:Investigations of a winter mountain storm in Utah. Part II: Mesoscale structure, supercooled liquid water development, and precipitation processes. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 1323–1350.

  • Stewart, R. E., 1992: Precipitation types in the transition region of winter storms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 287–296.

  • Tremblay, A., A. Glazer, W. Szyrmer, G. Isaac, and I. Zawadzki, 1995: Forecasting of supercooled clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2098–2113.

  • Turcotte, F. A., 1994: A method for aircraft icing diagnosis in precipitation. M.S. thesis, McGill University, 62 pp.

  • Wahba, G., and J. Wendelberger, 1980: Some new mathematical methods for variational objective analysis using splines and cross validation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1122–1143.

  • Waldvogel, A., W. Henrich, and L. Mosimann, 1993: New insight into the coupling between snow spectra and raindrop size distributions. Preprints, 26th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Norman, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 602–604.

  • Zawadzki, I., L. Ostiguy, and R. Laprise, 1993a: Retrieval of the microphysical properties in a CASP storm by integration of a numerical kinematic model. Atmos.–Ocean,31, 201–233.

  • Zawadzki, I., P. Zwack, and A. Frigon, 1993b: A study of a CASP storm: Analysis of radar data, Atmos.–Ocean,31, 175–199.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 113 113 6
PDF Downloads 21 21 2

Diagnostic of Supercooled Clouds from Single-Doppler Observations in Regions of Radar-Detectable Snow

View More View Less
  • a Cooperative Center for Research in Mesometeorology, and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • | b Cooperative Center for Research in Mesometeorology, and Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Liquid water is produced in the updraft regions of subfreezing clouds when the generation of vapor excess over the water saturation value exceeds the vapor depletion through the depositional growth of the solid particles. A diagnostic technique for the presence of supercooled cloud in the presence of snow is presented here. The data required are single-Doppler observations of reflectivity and radial velocity as well as a nearby sounding of temperature. From these data, the 3D wind field is retrieved by a variational method. From the retrieved vertical motion, the supercooled water is derived from the steady-state balance relation between snow content and cloud liquid water. The method is tested with a kinematic model that includes the main microphysical processes expected to occur in stratiform subfreezing conditions. A comparison between aircraft in situ measurements of supercooled water content and the diagnosed as well as model-generated values shows good agreement.

Corresponding author address: Isztar Zawadzki, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, PQ H3A 2K6, Canada.

isztar@zephyr.meteo.mcgill.ca

Abstract

Liquid water is produced in the updraft regions of subfreezing clouds when the generation of vapor excess over the water saturation value exceeds the vapor depletion through the depositional growth of the solid particles. A diagnostic technique for the presence of supercooled cloud in the presence of snow is presented here. The data required are single-Doppler observations of reflectivity and radial velocity as well as a nearby sounding of temperature. From these data, the 3D wind field is retrieved by a variational method. From the retrieved vertical motion, the supercooled water is derived from the steady-state balance relation between snow content and cloud liquid water. The method is tested with a kinematic model that includes the main microphysical processes expected to occur in stratiform subfreezing conditions. A comparison between aircraft in situ measurements of supercooled water content and the diagnosed as well as model-generated values shows good agreement.

Corresponding author address: Isztar Zawadzki, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, PQ H3A 2K6, Canada.

isztar@zephyr.meteo.mcgill.ca

Save