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On the Computation of Gradients from Observations over Complex Terrain

Fred J. KoppSouth Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota

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Paul L. SmithSouth Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota

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Harold D. OrvilleSouth Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota

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Abstract

A mathematical scheme is developed to compute the gradients of observations taken over complex terrain. The method is applied to an artificial example to demonstrate the scheme. An application is made to surface pressure observations between Little Rock, Arkansas, and Amarillo, Texas. Divergence computations are made with the scheme using observed wind data over the Black Hills of South Dakota.

Corresponding author address: F. J. Kopp, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph St., Rapid City, SD 57701-3995. fkopp@msmailgw.sdsmt.edu

Abstract

A mathematical scheme is developed to compute the gradients of observations taken over complex terrain. The method is applied to an artificial example to demonstrate the scheme. An application is made to surface pressure observations between Little Rock, Arkansas, and Amarillo, Texas. Divergence computations are made with the scheme using observed wind data over the Black Hills of South Dakota.

Corresponding author address: F. J. Kopp, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph St., Rapid City, SD 57701-3995. fkopp@msmailgw.sdsmt.edu

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