Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Taiwan and Its Detection Using TRMM Observations

C. M. Kishtawal Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Search for other papers by C. M. Kishtawal in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
T. N. Krishnamurti Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Search for other papers by T. N. Krishnamurti in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

A surface-based rainfall monitoring network reveals that summer rainfall over Taiwan exhibits a prominent diurnal variation. In this study, an attempt has been made to detect the diurnal variability of Taiwan rainfall using observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The results show that the diurnal patterns of Taiwan rainfall can be detected with TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observations using a satellite observation period of 36 or more days, and detected signals match reasonably with those using continuous surface observations. However, sometimes, because of the unfavorable combination of satellite sampling and the occurrence of some transient regimes in local rainfall, there is a possibility of misinterpreting the diurnal cycle. The TRMM precipitation radar sensor also reveals a diurnal cycle of convective and stratiform rainfall. The convective activity increases during the late afternoon over Taiwan, which may be the effect of convection forced by localized mass convergence caused by the sea breeze. It is of interest that TMI data indicate a significant increase of rainfall over orographic regions during the same time.

Corresponding author address: T. N. Krishnamurti, Dept. of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4520.

tnk@io.met.fsu.edu

Abstract

A surface-based rainfall monitoring network reveals that summer rainfall over Taiwan exhibits a prominent diurnal variation. In this study, an attempt has been made to detect the diurnal variability of Taiwan rainfall using observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The results show that the diurnal patterns of Taiwan rainfall can be detected with TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observations using a satellite observation period of 36 or more days, and detected signals match reasonably with those using continuous surface observations. However, sometimes, because of the unfavorable combination of satellite sampling and the occurrence of some transient regimes in local rainfall, there is a possibility of misinterpreting the diurnal cycle. The TRMM precipitation radar sensor also reveals a diurnal cycle of convective and stratiform rainfall. The convective activity increases during the late afternoon over Taiwan, which may be the effect of convection forced by localized mass convergence caused by the sea breeze. It is of interest that TMI data indicate a significant increase of rainfall over orographic regions during the same time.

Corresponding author address: T. N. Krishnamurti, Dept. of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4520.

tnk@io.met.fsu.edu

Save
  • Albright, M. D., E. E. Recker, R. J. Reed, and R. Dang, 1985: The diurnal variation of deep convection and inferred precipitation in the central tropical Pacific during January–February, 1979. Mon. Wea. Rev.,113, 1663–1680.

  • Awaka, J., T. Iguchi, and K. Okamoto, 1998: Early results on rain type classification by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar. Proc. Eighth URSI Commission F Open Symp., Aveiro, Portugal, International Union of Radio Science, 143–146.

  • Bell, T. L., and N. Reid, 1993: Detecting the diurnal cycle of rainfall using satellite observations. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 311–322.

  • Chang A. T. C., L. S. Chiu, and G. Yang, 1995: Diurnal cycle of oceanic precipitation from SSM/I data. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3371–3380.

  • Chen T. C., M. C. Yen, J. C. Hseih, and R. W. Arritt, 1999: Diurnal and seasonal variations of the rainfall measured by the Automatic Rainfall and Meteorological Telemetry System in Taiwan. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,80, 2299–2312.

  • Gray, W. M., and R. W. Jacobson Jr., 1977: Diurnal variation of deep cumulus convection. Mon. Wea. Rev.,105, 1171–1188.

  • Henden, H. H., and K. Woodberry, 1993: The diurnal cycle of tropical convection. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 16 623–16 637.

  • Huffman, G. J., and Coauthors, 1997: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) combined precipitation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 5–20.

  • Krishnamurti, T. N., and C. M. Kishtawal, 2000: A pronounced continental-scale diurnal mode of the Asian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev.,128, 462–473.

  • Kummerow, C., W. S. Olson, and L. Giglio, 1996: A simplified scheme for obtaining precipitation and vertical hydrometeor profiles from passive microwave sensors. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,34, 1213–1232.

  • Meisner, B. N., and P. A. Arkin, 1987: Spatial and annual variations in the diurnal cycle of large-scale tropical convective cloudiness and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 2009–2032.

  • Murakami, M., 1983: Analysis of deep convective activity over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia. Part I. Diurnal cycle. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,61, 60–75.

  • Nitta, T., and S. Sekine, 1994: Diurnal variation of convective activity over the tropical western Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,72, 627–640.

  • Ramage, C. S., 1971: Monsoon Meteorology. Academic Press, 296 pp.

  • Sharma A., A. Chang, and T. Wilheit, 1991: Estimation of the diurnal cycle of oceanic precipitation from SSM/I data. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2168–2175.

  • Short, D. A., and J. M. Wallace, 1980: Satellite inferred morning to evening cloudiness change. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1160–1169.

  • Smith E. A., and Coauthors, 1998: Results of WetNet PIP-2 Project J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 1483–1536.

  • Steiner, M., R. A. Houze Jr., and S. E. Yuter, 1995: Climatological characterization of three-dimensional storm structure from operational radar and rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 1978–2007.

  • Tao, W. K., and J. Simpson, 1989: The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci.,4, 19–54.

  • TSDIS, 1998: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Science Data and Information System (TSDIS), Vol. 4: File specifications for TSDIS products—level 2 and level 3. Release 4.03, 72 pp. [Available online at http://tsdis02.nascom.nasa.gov/tsdis/Documents/ICSVol4.pdf.].

  • Xie, P., A. Arkin, 1997: Global Precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 2539–2558.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 373 73 6
PDF Downloads 161 53 8