• Arya, S. P. 1988:. Introduction to Micrometeorology. Academic Press, 307 pp.

  • Babin, S. M. 1996:. A new model of the oceanic evaporation duct and its comparison with current models. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland at College Park, 190 pp. [Available from University Microfilm, 305 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babin, S. M., , G. S. Young, , and J. A. Carton. 1997:. A new model of the oceanic evaporation duct. J. Appl. Meteor. 36:193204.

  • Bean, B. R., and E. J. Dutton. 1968:. Radio Meteorology. Dover Publications, 435 pp.

  • Beljaars, A. C. M., and A. A. M. Holtslag. 1991:. Flux parameterization over land surfaces for atmospheric models. J. Appl. Meteor. 30:327341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, J. 1991:. A sensitivity study of weather data inaccuracies on evaporation duct height algorithms. Radio Sci. 26:731746.

  • Cook, J., and S. Burk. 1992:. Potential refractivity as a similarity variable. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 58:151159.

  • Dockery, G. D. 1988:. Modeling electromagnetic wave propagation in the troposphere using the parabolic equation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36:14641470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dockery, G. D., and J. R. Kuttler. 1996:. An improved impedance-boundary algorithm for Fourier split-step solutions of the parabolic wave equation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44:15921599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairall, C. W., , E. F. Bradley, , D. P. Rogers, , J. B. Edson, , and G. S. Young. 1996:. Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res. 101:37473764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frederickson, P. A., , K. L. Davidson, , and A. K. Goroch. 2000:. Operational bulk evaporation duct model for MORIAH, Version 1.2. Naval Postgraduate School, 70 pp. [Available from P. A. Frederickson, Naval Postgraduate School, 589 Dyer Road, Monterey, CA 93943-5114.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freehafer, J. E. 1988:. Tropospheric refraction. Propagation of Short Radio Waves, D. E. Kerr, Ed., Peninsula Publishing, 9–22.

  • Gehman, J. Z. 2000:. Importance of evaporation duct stability in propagation-sensitive studies. JHU APL Tech. Rep. A2A-00-U-3-008, June, 8 pp. [Available from J. Z. Gehman, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Godfrey, J. S., and A. C. M. Beljaars. 1991:. On the turbulent fluxes of buoyancy, heat and moisture at the air–sea interface at low wind speeds. J. Geophys. Res. 96:2204322048.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grachev, A. A., , C. W. Fairall, , and E. F. Bradley. 2000:. Convective profile constants revisited. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 94:495515.

  • Kerr, D. E. 1988:. Transmission along the California Coast. Propagation of Short Radio Waves, D. E. Kerr, Ed., Peninsula Publishing, 328–335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ko, H. W. 1985:. Don't let ducting clutter system specs. Microwaves RF 24:103108.

  • Liu, W. T., and T. V. Blanc. 1984:. The Liu, Katsaros and Businger (1979) bulk atmospheric flux computational iteration program in FORTRAN and BASIC. NRL Memo. 5291, DTIC AD-A156, 736 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, W. T., , K. B. Katsaros, , and J. A. Businger. 1979:. Bulk parameterization of air–sea exchanges of heat and water vapor including the molecular constraints at the interface. J. Atmos. Sci. 36:17221735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monin, A. S., and A. M. Obukhov. 1954:. Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere near the ground. Tr. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Geofiz. Inst. 24:163187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, P. R. 1990:. Design and analysis of experiments. Handbook of Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, H. M. Wadsworth, Ed., McGraw-Hill, 4.15, 14.12–14.14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paulus, R. A. 1990:. Evaporation duct effects on sea clutter. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 38:17651771.

  • Reilly, J. P., and G. D. Dockery. 1990:. Influence of evaporation ducts on radar sea return. IEE Proc. 137F:8088.

  • Sorbjan, Z. 1989:. Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Prentice Hall, 317 pp.

  • Stull, R. B. 1994:. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 230 230 19
PDF Downloads 103 103 7

LKB-Based Evaporation Duct Model Comparison with Buoy Data

View More View Less
  • a Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland
  • | b Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

A wave-riding catamaran with a mast-traveling sensor package (profiling buoy) was developed to make fine-scale atmospheric measurements within the first meter above the ocean surface. These measurements are used to generate time-averaged modified refractivity (M) profiles that are then compared with those determined from four evaporation duct models based on the surface layer theory of Liu, Katsaros, and Businger (LKB). Model inputs are derived from measurements from masts on the R/V Chessie and from a tethered sea surface temperature buoy. Because electromagnetic propagation is critically dependent on the M-profile slopes, different analytical techniques are employed to compare the curvature of the model profiles with that of the profiles measured by the profiling buoy. One comparison criterion was to use the rms M slope difference between the model and a curve fit to the buoy profile data. Another analytical technique was to use the rms M difference after mean M removal between the model and the buoy profiles. Using these criteria for comparison of these models with the data seems to indicate that the model-derived profiles may be missing some phenomena in the surface layer such as wave effects. Overall, however, the shapes of the measured M profiles showed log-linear characteristics near the surface. One interesting result is that each model was better at approximating the M-profile curvature for stable than for unstable conditions.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Steven M. Babin, Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099. steven.babin@jhuapl.edu

Abstract

A wave-riding catamaran with a mast-traveling sensor package (profiling buoy) was developed to make fine-scale atmospheric measurements within the first meter above the ocean surface. These measurements are used to generate time-averaged modified refractivity (M) profiles that are then compared with those determined from four evaporation duct models based on the surface layer theory of Liu, Katsaros, and Businger (LKB). Model inputs are derived from measurements from masts on the R/V Chessie and from a tethered sea surface temperature buoy. Because electromagnetic propagation is critically dependent on the M-profile slopes, different analytical techniques are employed to compare the curvature of the model profiles with that of the profiles measured by the profiling buoy. One comparison criterion was to use the rms M slope difference between the model and a curve fit to the buoy profile data. Another analytical technique was to use the rms M difference after mean M removal between the model and the buoy profiles. Using these criteria for comparison of these models with the data seems to indicate that the model-derived profiles may be missing some phenomena in the surface layer such as wave effects. Overall, however, the shapes of the measured M profiles showed log-linear characteristics near the surface. One interesting result is that each model was better at approximating the M-profile curvature for stable than for unstable conditions.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Steven M. Babin, Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099. steven.babin@jhuapl.edu

Save