• Ackley, S. F. and K. Itagaki. 1970. Distribution of icing in the Northeast's ice storm of 26–27 December 1969. Weatherwise 23:274279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, 327 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennett, I. 1959. Glaze: Its meteorology and climatology, geographical distribution, and economic effects. Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center Tech. Rep. EP-15, 234 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branick, M. 1997. A climatology of significant winter type weather events in the contiguous U.S. Wea. Forecasting 12:193207.

  • Changnon, D. and S. A. Changnon. 1998. Evaluation of weather catastrophe data for use in climate change investigations. Climate Change 38:435445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A. 1997. Misuse of analytical approaches and data on severe weather. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Applied Climatology, Reno, NV, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 381–385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A. 2002. Developing data sets for assessing long-term fluctuations in freezing rain and ice storms in the U.S. Changnon Climatologist CRR-51, 29 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A. 2003a. Characteristics of ice storms in the United States. J. Appl. Meteor. 42:630639.

  • Changnon, S. A. 2003b. Urban modification of freezing-rain events. J. Appl. Meteor. 42:863870.

  • Changnon, S. A. and G. Hewings. 2001. Losses from weather extremes in the U.S. Nat. Hazards Rev. 2:113123.

  • Changnon, S. A. and T. R. Karl. 2003. Temporal and spatial variations of freezing rain in the contiguous United States: 1948–2000. J. Appl. Meteor. 42:13021315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forbes, G. S., R. A. Anthes, and D. W. Thomson. 1987. Synoptic and mesoscale aspects of an Appalachian ice storm associated with cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev. 115:564591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henry, A. J. 1922. The great glaze storm of 21–23 February 1922 in the upper lake region: Discussion of general conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev. 50:7782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, K. J. 1996. Ice accretion in freezing rain. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory CRREL Rep. 96-2, 23 pp.

  • Jones, K. J., N. Mulherin, and C. Ryerson. 1997. EPRI: Freezing rain mapping project: Region 2. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Rep. CRREL CON 78, 35 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, K. J., R. Thorkildson, and N. Lott. 2002. The development of a U.S. climatology of extreme ice loads. National Climatic Data Center Tech. Rep. 2002-01, 23 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lott, J. N. and M. Sittel. 1996. The February 1994 ice storm in the southeastern U.S. Proc. Seventh Int. Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada, American Society of Civil Engineers, 259–264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lott, J. N. and K. F. Jones. 1998. Using U.S. weather data for modeling ice loads from freezing rain. Proc. Eighth Int. Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures, Reykjavik, Iceland, American Society of Civil Engineers, 157–161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Makkonen, L. 1984. Modeling ice accretion on wires. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 23:929939.

  • McNayr, J. S. 1944. Unusual ice storm in Lousiana, January 13–14, 1944. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 25:196200.

  • McQueen, H. R. and H. Keith. 1956. The ice storm of January 7–10, 1956 over the northeastern U.S. Mon. Wea. Rev. 84:3545.

  • Meisinger, C. L. 1920. The precipitation of sleet and the formation of glaze in the eastern U.S., January 20–25, 1920. Mon. Wea. Rev. 48:7380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peterka, J. A. 1992. Improved extreme wind prediction for the U.S. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 41:533541.

  • President's Long-Term Recovery Task Force, 1998. A call for collaboration: Final report on the January 1998 ice storm: Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, Region 1. FEMA DR-1198-ME, 49 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rauber, R. M., M. K. Ramamurthy, and A. Tokay. 1994. Synoptic and mesoscale structure of a severe freezing rain event: The St. Valentine's day storm. Wea. Forecasting 9:183208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shan, L. and L. Marr. 1996. Ice storm data base and ice severity maps. Jones Power Delivery TR106762, 38 pp.

  • Tattleman, P. and I. Gringorten. 1973. Estimated glaze ice and wind loads at the earth's surface for the contiguous U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories Rep. AFCRL-TR-73-0646, 34 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, B. B. 1960. The 1960 ice storm in northern Alabama. Weatherwise 13:196199.

  • Williamson, R. M. 1934. Sleet and ice storm in Tennessee on March 19, 1934. Mon. Wea. Rev. 62:9798.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 320 93 6
PDF Downloads 160 87 10

Sources of Data on Freezing Rain and Resulting Damages

View More View Less
  • a Changnon Climatologist, Mahomet, Illinois
  • | b National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina
Restricted access

Abstract

Freezing rain produces major damages each year in the United States, and various affected groups continue to seek data on the incidence and losses produced by freezing rain. The various kinds of data available about freezing rain and related damages have been identified and assessed as part of a project to develop long-term databases. Data include long-term records of the occurrences of freezing rain, 50-yr records of insured property losses, and measures and estimates of ice loading on wires and structures. Many years of interactions with affected and interested groups and individuals, such as the insurance industry and design engineers, led to the preparation of this summary that describes the various sources of data on freezing-rain and ice-storm damages. The benefits and limitations of each form of data are presented to help to guide potential data users.

Corresponding author address: Stanley A. Changnon, Changnon Climatologist, 801 Buckthorn, Mahomet, IL 61853. schangno@uiuc.edu

Abstract

Freezing rain produces major damages each year in the United States, and various affected groups continue to seek data on the incidence and losses produced by freezing rain. The various kinds of data available about freezing rain and related damages have been identified and assessed as part of a project to develop long-term databases. Data include long-term records of the occurrences of freezing rain, 50-yr records of insured property losses, and measures and estimates of ice loading on wires and structures. Many years of interactions with affected and interested groups and individuals, such as the insurance industry and design engineers, led to the preparation of this summary that describes the various sources of data on freezing-rain and ice-storm damages. The benefits and limitations of each form of data are presented to help to guide potential data users.

Corresponding author address: Stanley A. Changnon, Changnon Climatologist, 801 Buckthorn, Mahomet, IL 61853. schangno@uiuc.edu

Save