• Aydin, K., , T. A. Seliga, , and V. Balaji. 1986. Remote sensing of hail with dual linear polarization radar. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 25:14751484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aydin, K., , Y. Zhao, , and T. A. Seliga. 1990. A differential reflectivity hail measurement technique: Observations during the Denver hailstorm of 13 June 1984. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7:104113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, S. L. 1980. Report on a meeting to establish a common Doppler radar data exchange format. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 61:14011404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunkow, D., , V. N. Bringi, , P. C. Kennedy, , S. A. Rutledge, , V. Chandrasekar, , E. A. Mueller, , and R. K. Bowie. 2000. A description of the CSU–CHILL national radar facility. J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 17:15961608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cressman, G. P. 1959. An operational objective analysis scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev. 87:367374.

  • Crum, T. D., , R. L. Alberty, , and D. W. Burgess. 1993. Recording, archiving, and using WSR-88D data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 74:645653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dye, J. E., , B. E. Martner, , and L. J. Miller. 1983. Dynamical-microphysical evolution of a convective storm in a weakly sheared environment. Part I: Microphysical observations and interpretation. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:20832096.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foote, G. B. 1984. A study of hail growth utilizing observed storm conditions. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 23:84101.

  • Foote, G. B., and H. W. Frank. 1983. Case study of a hailstorm in Colorado. Part III: Airflow from triple-Doppler measurements. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:686707.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymsfield, A. J. 1983. Case study of a hailstorm in Colorado. Part IV: Graupel and hail growth mechanisms deduced through particle trajectory calculations. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:14821509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymsfield, A. J., , A. R. Jameson, , and H. W. Frank. 1980. Hail growth mechanisms in a Colorado storm. Part II: Hail formation processes. J. Atmos. Sci. 37:17791807.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jameson, A. R., and A. J. Heymsfield. 1980. Hail growth mechanisms in a Colorado storm. Part I: Dual-wavelength radar observations. J. Atmos. Sci. 37:17631778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jayaweera, K. O. L. F., and B. J. Mason. 1965. The behavior of freely-falling cylinders and cones in a viscous fluid. J. Fluid Mech. 22:709725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, G. N., and P. L. Smith Jr.. 1980. Meteorological instrumentation system on the T-28 thunderstorm research aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 61:972979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knight, C. A., and K. R. Knupp. 1986. Precipitation growth trajectories in a CCOPE storm. J. Atmos. Sci. 43:10571073.

  • Knight, N. C., and A. J. Heymsfield. 1983. Measurement and interpretation of hailstone density and terminal velocity. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:15101516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, L. J., , J. E. Dye, , and B. E. Martner. 1983. Dynamical-microphysical evolution of a convective storm in a weakly sheared environment. Part II: Airflow and precipitation trajectories from Doppler radar observations. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:20972109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, L. J., , J. D. Tuttle, , and C. A. Knight. 1988. Airflow and hail growth in a severe northern High Plains supercell. J. Atmos. Sci. 45:736762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, L. J., , J. D. Tuttle, , and G. B. Foote. 1990. Precipitation production in a large Montana hailstorm: Airflow and particle growth trajectories. J. Atmos. Sci. 47:16191646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mohr, C. G., , L. J. Miller, , R. L. Vaughan, , and H. W. Frank. 1986. On the merger of mesoscale data sets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analysis. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 3:143161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, S. P. 1983. The influence of storm flow structure on hail growth. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:19651982.

  • Pruppacher, H. R., and K. V. Beard. 1970. A wind tunnel investigation of the internal circulation and shape of water drops falling at terminal velocity in air. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 96:247256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rockicki, M. L., and K. C. Young. 1978. The initiation of precipitation in updrafts. J. Appl. Meteor. 17:745754.

  • Wood, V. T., and R. A. Brown. 1997. Effects of radar sampling on single-Doppler velocity signatures of mesocyclones and tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting 12:928938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziegler, C. L., , P. S. Ray, , and N. C. Knight. 1983. Hail growth in an Oklahoma multicell storm. J. Atmos. Sci. 40:17681791.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 150 150 15
PDF Downloads 55 55 8

A Case Study of the Origin of Hail in a Multicell Thunderstorm Using In Situ Aircraft and Polarimetric Radar Data

View More View Less
  • a Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | b Department of Atmospheric Science, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

An armored T-28 research aircraft made direct observations of the hydrometeors present at approximately the −3°C temperature level in the inflow region of a multicell thunderstorm. During the penetration, both the Colorado State University (CSU)–University of Chicago and Illinois State Water Survey (CHILL) 11-cm-wavelength dual-polarization research radar and the Denver, Colorado, Front Range Airport (KFTG) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) were scanning this storm. Polarimetric radar indications of hail (high reflectivity and low differential reflectivity) appeared near the surface in the echo core adjacent to the aircraft track approximately 6 min after the T-28's inflow transit. Radial velocity data from the KFTG radar were combined with those recorded at CSU–CHILL to synthesize the airflow fields in the storm around the time of the T-28 penetration. Hail trajectories were initiated from a location at which the T-28 encountered a burst of approximately 1-cm-diameter, low-density graupel particles within the general storm inflow region. Forward-time trajectory calculations indicated that these graupel particles subsequently grew slightly into small hailstones and ended up within a few kilometers of the near-surface polarimetric radar hail-signature location. Trajectories computed backward in time imply that these hail embryos originated aloft in the forward portion of the echo complex. These are the first quantitative, direct in situ observations of recirculating precipitation becoming embryos for hail development.

Corresponding author address: Mr. Patrick C. Kennedy, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1381. pat@lab.chill.colostate.edu

Abstract

An armored T-28 research aircraft made direct observations of the hydrometeors present at approximately the −3°C temperature level in the inflow region of a multicell thunderstorm. During the penetration, both the Colorado State University (CSU)–University of Chicago and Illinois State Water Survey (CHILL) 11-cm-wavelength dual-polarization research radar and the Denver, Colorado, Front Range Airport (KFTG) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) were scanning this storm. Polarimetric radar indications of hail (high reflectivity and low differential reflectivity) appeared near the surface in the echo core adjacent to the aircraft track approximately 6 min after the T-28's inflow transit. Radial velocity data from the KFTG radar were combined with those recorded at CSU–CHILL to synthesize the airflow fields in the storm around the time of the T-28 penetration. Hail trajectories were initiated from a location at which the T-28 encountered a burst of approximately 1-cm-diameter, low-density graupel particles within the general storm inflow region. Forward-time trajectory calculations indicated that these graupel particles subsequently grew slightly into small hailstones and ended up within a few kilometers of the near-surface polarimetric radar hail-signature location. Trajectories computed backward in time imply that these hail embryos originated aloft in the forward portion of the echo complex. These are the first quantitative, direct in situ observations of recirculating precipitation becoming embryos for hail development.

Corresponding author address: Mr. Patrick C. Kennedy, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1381. pat@lab.chill.colostate.edu

Save