• Anthes, R. A. 1982. Tropical Cyclones—Their Evolution, Structure, and Effects. Meteor. Monogr., No. 41, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 208 pp.

  • Blackwell, W. J., J. W. Barrett, F. W. Chen, R. V. Leslie, P. W. Rosenkranz, M. J. Schwartz, and D. H. Staelin. 2001. NPOESS aircraft sounder testbed-microwave (NAST-M): Instrument description and initial flight results. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39:24442453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deeter, M. N. and K. F. Evans. 2000. A novel ice-cloud retrieval algorithm based on the Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) 150- and 220-GHz channels. J. Appl. Meteor. 39:623633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gasiewski, A. J. 1993. Microwave radiative transfer in hydrometeors. Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave Radiometry, M. A. Janssen, Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 91–144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geerts, B., G. M. Heymsfield, L. Tian, J. B. Halverson, A. Guillory, and M. I. Mejia. 2000. Hurricane Georges's landfall in the Dominican Republic: Detailed airborne Doppler radar imagery. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 81:9991018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymsfield, G. M., I. J. Caylor, J. M. Shepherd, W. S. Olson, S. W. Bidwell, W. C. Boncyk, and S. Ameen. 1996. Structure of Florida thunderstorms using high-altitude aircraft radiometer and radar observations. J. Appl. Meteor. 35:17361762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hitschfeld, W. and J. Bordan. 1954. Errors inherent in the radar measurement of rainfall at attenuating wavelengths. J. Meteor. 11:5867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, J. A., R. Meneghini, T. Iguchi, and W-K. Tao. 1997. Synthetic data for testing TRMM radar algorithms. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 196–197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C. Coauthors,. 2000. The status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. J. Appl. Meteor. 39:19651982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lenoble, J. Ed.,. 1985. Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Absorbing Atmospheres: Standard Computational Procedures. A. Deepak, 300 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J. S. and W. M. Palmer. 1948. The distribution of raindrops with size. J. Meteor. 5:165166.

  • Marzano, F. S., A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi, N. Pierdicca, E. A. Smith, and J. Turk. 1999. Bayesian estimation of precipitating cloud parameters from combined measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometer and radar. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37:596613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McFarquhar, G. M. and A. J. Heymsfield. 1997. Parameterization of tropical cirrus ice crystal size distributions and implications for radiative transfer: Results from CEPEX. J. Atmos. Sci. 54:21872200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meneghini, R., H. Kumagai, J. R. Wang, T. Iguchi, and T. Kozu. 1997. Microphysical retrievals over stratiform rain using measurements from an airborne dual-wavelength radar–radiometer. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35:487506.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelder, J. A. and R. Mead. 1965. A simplex-method for function minimization. Comput. J. 7:308313.

  • Olson, W. S., C. D. Kummerow, G. M. Heymsfield, and L. Giglio. 1996. A method for combined passive–active microwave retrievals of cloud and precipitation profiles. J. Appl. Meteor. 35:17631789.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Racette, P., R. F. Adler, J. R. Wang, A. J. Gasiewski, D. M. Jackson, and D. S. Zacharias. 1996. An airborne Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer for cloud, precipitation, and atmospheric water vapor studies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13:610619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sauvageot, H. 1996. Retrieval of vertical profiles of liquid water and ice content in mixed clouds from Doppler radar and radiometer measurements. J. Appl. Meteor. 35:1423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Savov, P. B., T. S. Skakalova, I. N. Kolev, and F. L. Ludwig. 2002. Lidar investigation of the temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols in mountain valleys. J. Appl. Meteor. 41:528541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sekhon, R. S. and R. Srivastava. 1970. Snow size spectra and radar reflectivity. J. Atmos. Sci. 27:299307.

  • Sihvola, A. H. 1989. Self-consistency aspects of dielectric mixing theories. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27:403415.

  • Simpson, J., C. Kummerow, W-K. Tao, and R. F. Adler. 1996. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 60:1936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skofronick-Jackson, G. M. and A. J. Gasiewski. 1995. Nonlinear statistical retrievals of ice content and rain rate from passive microwave observations of a simulated convective storm. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33:957970.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skofronick-Jackson, G. M., A. J. Gasiewski, and J. R. Wang. 2002. Influence of microphysical cloud parameterizations on microwave brightness temperatures. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40:187196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spencer, R. W., R. E. Hood, F. J. LaFontaine, E. A. Smith, R. Platt, J. Galliano, V. L. Griffin, and E. Lobl. 1994. High-resolution imaging of rain systems with the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11:849857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, W-K. and J. Simpson. 1993. Goddard cumulus ensemble model. Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci. 4:3572.

  • van de Hulst, H. C. 1980. Multiple Light Scattering: Tables, Formulas, and Applications. Vol. 2. Academic Press, 436 pp.

  • Viltard, N., C. Kummerow, W. S. Olson, and Y. Hong. 2000. Combined use of the radar and radiometer of TRMM to estimate the influence of drop size distribution on rain retrievals. J. Appl. Meteor. 39:21032114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z. and K. Sassen. 2002. Cirrus cloud microphysical property retrieval using lidar and radar measurements. Part I: Algorithm description and comparison with in situ data. J. Appl. Meteor. 41:218229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 168 49 5
PDF Downloads 47 16 2

Combined Radiometer–Radar Microphysical Profile Estimations with Emphasis on High-Frequency Brightness Temperature Observations

Gail M. Skofronick-JacksonUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, and Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Search for other papers by Gail M. Skofronick-Jackson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
James R. WangNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Search for other papers by James R. Wang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Gerald M. HeymsfieldNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Search for other papers by Gerald M. Heymsfield in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Robbie HoodNASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama

Search for other papers by Robbie Hood in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Will ManningUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, and Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Search for other papers by Will Manning in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Robert MeneghiniNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Search for other papers by Robert Meneghini in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
James A. WeinmanNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Search for other papers by James A. Weinman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Information about the vertical microphysical cloud structure is useful in many modeling and predictive practices. Radiometers and radars are used to observe hydrometeor properties. This paper describes an iterative retrieval algorithm that combines the use of airborne active and wideband (10–340 GHz) passive observations to estimate the vertical content and particle size distributions of liquid and frozen hydrometeors. Airborne radar and radiometer observations from the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) were used in the retrieval algorithm as constraints. Nadir profiles were estimated for 1 min each of flight time (approximately 12.5 km along track) for anvil, convective, and quasi-stratiform clouds associated with Hurricane Bonnie (August 1998). The physically based retrieval algorithm relies on high frequencies (≥150 GHz) to provide details on the frozen hydrometeors. Neglecting the high frequencies yielded acceptable estimates of the liquid profiles, but the ice profiles were poorly retrieved. The wideband observations were found to more than double the estimated frozen hydrometeor content as compared with retrievals using only 90 GHz and below. The convective and quasi-stratiform iterative retrievals quickly reached convergence. The complex structure of the frozen hydrometeors required the most iterations for convergence for the anvil cloud type. Nonunique profiles, within physical and theoretical bounds, were retrieved for thin anvil ice clouds. A qualitative validation using coincident in situ CAMEX-3 observations shows that the retrieved particle size distributions are well corroborated with independent measurements.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Gail M. Skofronick-Jackson, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, and Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 975, Bldg. 33, Rm. A428, Greenbelt, MD 20771. gailsjackson@ieee.org

Abstract

Information about the vertical microphysical cloud structure is useful in many modeling and predictive practices. Radiometers and radars are used to observe hydrometeor properties. This paper describes an iterative retrieval algorithm that combines the use of airborne active and wideband (10–340 GHz) passive observations to estimate the vertical content and particle size distributions of liquid and frozen hydrometeors. Airborne radar and radiometer observations from the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) were used in the retrieval algorithm as constraints. Nadir profiles were estimated for 1 min each of flight time (approximately 12.5 km along track) for anvil, convective, and quasi-stratiform clouds associated with Hurricane Bonnie (August 1998). The physically based retrieval algorithm relies on high frequencies (≥150 GHz) to provide details on the frozen hydrometeors. Neglecting the high frequencies yielded acceptable estimates of the liquid profiles, but the ice profiles were poorly retrieved. The wideband observations were found to more than double the estimated frozen hydrometeor content as compared with retrievals using only 90 GHz and below. The convective and quasi-stratiform iterative retrievals quickly reached convergence. The complex structure of the frozen hydrometeors required the most iterations for convergence for the anvil cloud type. Nonunique profiles, within physical and theoretical bounds, were retrieved for thin anvil ice clouds. A qualitative validation using coincident in situ CAMEX-3 observations shows that the retrieved particle size distributions are well corroborated with independent measurements.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Gail M. Skofronick-Jackson, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, and Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 975, Bldg. 33, Rm. A428, Greenbelt, MD 20771. gailsjackson@ieee.org

Save