• Arritt, R. W. 1993. Effects of the large-scale flow on characteristic features of the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor. 32:116125.

  • Atkins, N. T., and R. M. Wakimoto. 1997. Influence of the synoptic-scale flow on sea breezes observed during CaPE. Mon. Wea. Rev. 125:21122130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkins, N. T., , R. M. Wakimoto, , and T. M. Weckwerth. 1995. Observations of the sea-breeze front during CaPE. Part II: Dual-Doppler and aircraft analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 123:944969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkinson, B. W. 1981. Meso-scale Atmospheric Circulations. Academic Press, 495 pp.

  • Barnes, S. L. 1973. Mesoscale objective analysis using weighted time-series observations. NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory Tech. Memo. ERL NSSL-62, 60 pp.

  • Dekate, M. V. 1968. Climatological study of sea and land breezes over Bombay. Indian J. Meteor. Geophys. 19:421442.

  • Kalnay, E. Coauthors 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 77:437471.

  • Kingsmill, D. E. 1995. Convection initiation associated with a sea-breeze front, a gust front, and their collision. Mon. Wea. Rev. 123:29132933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch, S. E., , M. DesJardins, , and P. J. Kocin. 1983. An interactive Barnes objective map analysis scheme for use with satellite and conventional data. J. Appl. Meteor. 22:14871503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laird, N. F., , D. A. R. Kristovich, , R. M. Rauber, , H. T. Ochs III, , and L. J. Miller. 1995. The Cape Canaveral sea and river breezes: Kinematic structure and convective initiation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 123:29422956.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lambert, W. C. 2001. Statistical short-range forecast guidance for cloud ceilings over the Shuttle Landing Facility. NASA Kennedy Space Center Contractor Rep. CR-2001-210264, 45 pp. [Available from ENSCO, Inc., 1980 N. Atlantic Ave., Suite 230, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931.].

  • Lambert, W. C. 2002. Statistical short-range guidance for peak wind speed forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I results. NASA Kennedy Space Center Contractor Rep. CR-2002-211180, 39 pp. [Available from ENSCO, Inc., 1980 N. Atlantic Ave., Suite 230, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931.].

  • Lambert, W. C., and G. E. Taylor. 1998. Data quality assessment methods for the Eastern Range 915-MHz wind profiler network. NASA Kennedy Space Center Contractor Rep. CR-1998-207906, 49 pp. [Available from ENSCO, Inc., 1980 N. Atlantic Ave., Suite 230, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931.].

  • Lambert, W. C., , F. J. Merceret, , G. E. Taylor, , and J. G. Ward. 2003. Performance of five 915-MHz wind profilers and an associated automated quality control algorithm in an operational environment. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20:14881495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mak, M. K., and J. E. Walsh. 1976. On the relative intensities of sea and land breezes. J. Atmos. Sci. 33:242251.

  • Ohara, T., , I. Uno, , and S. Wakamatsu. 1989. Observed structure of a land breeze head in the Tokyo metropolitan area. J. Appl. Meteor. 28:693704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sen Gupta, P. K., and K. C. Chakravortty. 1947. Land breeze at Calcutta (Alipore). Sci. Notes Meteor. Dept. India 9:7380.

  • Simpson, J. E. 1996. Diurnal changes in sea-breeze direction. J. Appl. Meteor. 35:11661169.

  • Stephan, K., , C. M. Ewenz, , and J. M. Hacker. 1999. Sea-breeze front variations in space and time. Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 70:8195.

  • Taylor, G. E., , M. K. Atchison, , and C. R. Parks. 1990. The Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. ENSCO Rep. ARS-90-120, 229 pp. [Available from ENSCO, Inc., 1980 N. Atlantic Ave., Suite 230, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931.].

  • Wakimoto, R. M., and N. T. Atkins. 1994. Observations of the sea-breeze front during CaPE. Part I: Single Doppler, satellite, and cloud photogrammetry analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev. 122:10921114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, J. W., and D. L. Megenhardt. 1997. Thunderstorm initiation, organization, and lifetime associated with Florida boundary convergence lines. Mon. Wea. Rev. 125:15071525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yan, H., and R. A. Anthes. 1987. The effect of latitude on the sea breeze. Mon. Wea. Rev. 115:936956.

  • Zhong, S., and E. S. Takle. 1992. An observational study of sea- and land-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating. J. Appl. Meteor. 31:14261438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhong, S., and E. S. Takle. 1993. The effects of large-scale winds on the sea–land-breeze circulations in an area of complex coastal heating. J. Appl. Meteor. 32:11811195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 34 34 9
PDF Downloads 20 20 6

A 7-Yr Climatological Study of Land Breezes over the Florida Spaceport

View More View Less
  • a ENSCO, Inc., Cocoa Beach, and Applied Meteorology Unit, NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Florida
  • b 45th Weather Squadron, U.S. Air Force, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Seven years of wind and temperature data from a high-resolution network of 44 towers at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station were used to develop an objective method for identifying land breezes, which are defined as seaward-moving wind shift lines in this study. The favored meteorological conditions for land breezes consisted of surface high pressure in the vicinity of the Florida peninsula, mainly clear skies, and light synoptic onshore flow and/or the occurrence of a sea breeze during the afternoon preceding a land breeze. The land breeze characteristics are examined for two events occurring under different weather regimes—one with light synoptic onshore flow and no daytime sea breeze, and another following a daytime sea breeze under a prevailing offshore flow. Land breezes were found to occur over east-central Florida in all months of the year and had varied onset times and circulation depths. Land breezes were most common in the spring and summer months and least common in the winter. The average onset times were ∼4–5 h after sunset from May to July and ∼6.5–8 h after sunset from October to January. Land breezes typically moved from the west or southwest during the spring and summer, from the northwest in the autumn, and nearly equally from all directions in the winter. Shallow land breezes (<150-m depth) were typically not associated with the afternoon sea breeze and behaved like density currents, exhibiting the largest temperature decreases and latest onset times. Deep land breezes (>150-m depth) were most often preceded by an afternoon sea breeze, had the smallest horizontal temperature gradients, and experienced a mean onset time that is 4 h earlier than that of shallow land breezes.

Corresponding author address: Jonathan L. Case, ENSCO, Inc., 1980 N. Atlantic Ave., Suite 230, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931. case.jonathan@ensco.com

Abstract

Seven years of wind and temperature data from a high-resolution network of 44 towers at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station were used to develop an objective method for identifying land breezes, which are defined as seaward-moving wind shift lines in this study. The favored meteorological conditions for land breezes consisted of surface high pressure in the vicinity of the Florida peninsula, mainly clear skies, and light synoptic onshore flow and/or the occurrence of a sea breeze during the afternoon preceding a land breeze. The land breeze characteristics are examined for two events occurring under different weather regimes—one with light synoptic onshore flow and no daytime sea breeze, and another following a daytime sea breeze under a prevailing offshore flow. Land breezes were found to occur over east-central Florida in all months of the year and had varied onset times and circulation depths. Land breezes were most common in the spring and summer months and least common in the winter. The average onset times were ∼4–5 h after sunset from May to July and ∼6.5–8 h after sunset from October to January. Land breezes typically moved from the west or southwest during the spring and summer, from the northwest in the autumn, and nearly equally from all directions in the winter. Shallow land breezes (<150-m depth) were typically not associated with the afternoon sea breeze and behaved like density currents, exhibiting the largest temperature decreases and latest onset times. Deep land breezes (>150-m depth) were most often preceded by an afternoon sea breeze, had the smallest horizontal temperature gradients, and experienced a mean onset time that is 4 h earlier than that of shallow land breezes.

Corresponding author address: Jonathan L. Case, ENSCO, Inc., 1980 N. Atlantic Ave., Suite 230, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931. case.jonathan@ensco.com

Save