• Arya, S. P. 2001. Introduction to Micrometeorology. Academic Press 308 pp.

  • Barr, A. G. and G. S. Strong. 1996. Estimating regional surface heat and moisture fluxes above prairie cropland from surface and upper-air measurements. J. Appl. Meteor. 35:17161735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barr, A. G. and A. K. Betts. 1997. Radiosonde boundary layer budgets above a boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res. 102:2920529212.

  • Betts, A. K. and J. H. Ball. 1994. Budget analysis of FIFE 1987 sonde data. J. Geophys. Res. 99:36553666.

  • Betts, A. K. and A. G. Barr. 1996. First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Field Experiment 1987 sonde budget revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 101:2328523288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clapp, R. B. and G. M. Hornberger. 1978. Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res. 14:601604.

  • Cleugh, H. A. and S. B. Grimmond. 2001. Modelling regional scale surface energy exchanges and CBL growth in a heterogeneous, urban-rural landscape. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 98:131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cleugh, H. A., M. R. Raupach, P. R. Briggs, and P. A. Coppin. 2003. Regional-scale heat and water vapour fluxes in an agricultural landscape: An evaluation of CBL budget methods at OASIS. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 110:99137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Culf, A. D. 1993. The potential for estimating regional sensible heat flux from convective boundary layer growth. J. Hydrol. 146:235244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diak, G. R. 1990. Evaluation of heat flux, moisture flux and aerodynamic roughness at the land surface from knowledge of the PBL height and satellite-derived skin temperatures. Agric. For. Meteor. 52:181198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diak, G. R. and T. R. Stewart. 1989. Assessment of surface turbulent fluxes using geostationary satellite surface skin temperature and a mixed layer planetary boundary layer scheme. J. Geophys. Res. 94:63576373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diak, G. R. and M. S. Whipple. 1993. Improvements to models and methods for evaluating the land-surface energy balance and ‘effective’ roughness using radiosonde reports and satellite-measured ‘skin’ temperature data. Agric. For. Meteor. 63:189218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diak, G. R. and M. S. Whipple. 1994. A note on the use of radiosonde data to estimate the daytime fluxes of sensible and latent heat: A comparison with surface flux measurements from the FIFE. Agric. For. Meteor. 68:6375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dolman, A. J., A. D. Culf, and P. Bessemoulin. 1997. Observations of boundary layer development during the HAPEX-Sahel intensive observation period. J. Hydrol. 188–189:9981016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Driedonks, A. G. M. 1982. Models and observations of the growth of the atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 23:283306.

  • Ek, M. B. and A. A. M. Holtslag. 2004. Influence of soil moisture on boundary layer cloud development. J. Hydrometeor. 5:8699.

  • Findell, K. L. and E. A. B. Eltahir. 2003. Atmospheric controls on soil moisture–boundary layer interactions. Part I: Framework development. J. Hydrometeor. 4:552569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freedman, J. M., D. R. Fitzjaarald, K. E. Moore, and R. K. Sakai. 2001. Boundary layer clouds and vegetation–atmosphere feedbacks. J. Climate 14:180197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glazier, J., J. L. Monteith, and M. H. Unsworth. 1976. Effects of aerosol on the local heat budget of the lower atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 102:95102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hipps, L. E., E. Swiatek, and W. P. Kustas. 1994. Interactions between regional surface fluxes and the atmospheric boundary layer over a heterogeneous watershed. Water Resour. Res. 30:13871392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hubbe, J. M., J. C. Doran, J. C. Liljegren, and W. J. Shaw. 1997. Observations of spatial variations of boundary layer structure over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed. J. Appl. Meteor. 36:12211231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Key, J. R. and A. J. Schweiger. 1998. Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and FluxNet. Comput. Geosci. 24:443451.

  • Kustas, W. P. and W. Brutsaert. 1987. Virtual heat entrainment in the mixed layer over very rough terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 38:141157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lhomme, J-P., B. Monteny, and P. Bessemoulin. 1997. Inferring regional surface fluxes from convective boundary layer characteristics in a Sahelian environment. Water Resour. Res. 33:25632569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Margulis, S. A. and D. Entekhabi. 2004. Boundary-layer entrainment estimation through assimilation of radiosonde and micrometeorological data into a mixed-layer model. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 110:405433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oke, T. R. 1987. Boundary Layer Climates. Methuen, 435 pp.

  • Peters-Lidard, C. D. and L. H. Davis. 2000. Regional flux estimation in a convective boundary layer using a conservation approach. J. Hydrometeor. 1:170182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pino, D., J. V-G. Arellano, and P. G. Duynkerke. 2003. The contribution of shear to the evolution of a convective boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 60:19131926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, E. A. Coauthors 1992. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain. J. Geophys. Res. 97:1859918622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stull, R. B. 1988. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 670 pp.

  • Swiatek, E. 1992. Estimating regional surface fluxes from measured properties of the atmospheric boundary layer in a semiarid ecosystem. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Plants, Soils, and Biometeorology, Utah State University, 119 pp.

  • Tennekes, H. 1973. A model for the dynamics of the inversion above a convective boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 30:558567.

  • Venables, W. N. and B. D. Ripley. 1999. Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS. Springer, 382 pp.

  • Yi, C., K. J. Davis, and B. W. Berger. 2001. Long-term observations of the dynamics of the continental planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 58:12881299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 10 10 10
PDF Downloads 8 8 8

An Empirical Investigation of Convective Planetary Boundary Layer Evolution and Its Relationship with the Land Surface

View More View Less
  • a Department of Geography, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
  • | b Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland
Restricted access

Abstract

Relationships among convective planetary boundary layer (PBL) evolution and land surface properties are explored using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Test Bed in the southern Great Plains. Previous attempts to infer surface fluxes from observations of the PBL have been constrained by difficulties in accurately estimating and parameterizing the conservation equation and have been limited to multiday averages or small samples of daily case studies. Using radiosonde and surface flux data for June, July, and August of 1997, 1999, and 2001, a conservation approach was applied to 132 sets of daily observations. Results highlight the limitations of using this method on daily time scales caused by the diurnal variability and complexity of entrainment. A statistical investigation of the relationship among PBL and both land surface and near-surface properties that are not explicitly included in conservation methods indicates that atmospheric stability in the layer of PBL growth is the most influential variable controlling PBL development. Significant relationships between PBL height and soil moisture, 2-m potential temperature, and 2-m specific humidity are also identified through this analysis, and it is found that 76% of the variance in PBL height can be explained by observations of stability and soil water content. Using this approach, it is also possible to use limited observations of the PBL to estimate soil moisture on daily time scales without the need for detailed land surface parameterizations. In the future, the general framework that is presented may provide a means for robust estimation of near-surface soil moisture and land surface energy balance over regional scales.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, Code 614.3, NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771. sntnello@hsb.gsfc.nasa.gov

Abstract

Relationships among convective planetary boundary layer (PBL) evolution and land surface properties are explored using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Test Bed in the southern Great Plains. Previous attempts to infer surface fluxes from observations of the PBL have been constrained by difficulties in accurately estimating and parameterizing the conservation equation and have been limited to multiday averages or small samples of daily case studies. Using radiosonde and surface flux data for June, July, and August of 1997, 1999, and 2001, a conservation approach was applied to 132 sets of daily observations. Results highlight the limitations of using this method on daily time scales caused by the diurnal variability and complexity of entrainment. A statistical investigation of the relationship among PBL and both land surface and near-surface properties that are not explicitly included in conservation methods indicates that atmospheric stability in the layer of PBL growth is the most influential variable controlling PBL development. Significant relationships between PBL height and soil moisture, 2-m potential temperature, and 2-m specific humidity are also identified through this analysis, and it is found that 76% of the variance in PBL height can be explained by observations of stability and soil water content. Using this approach, it is also possible to use limited observations of the PBL to estimate soil moisture on daily time scales without the need for detailed land surface parameterizations. In the future, the general framework that is presented may provide a means for robust estimation of near-surface soil moisture and land surface energy balance over regional scales.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, Code 614.3, NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771. sntnello@hsb.gsfc.nasa.gov

Save