Properties of the Wind Field within the Oklahoma City Park Avenue Street Canyon. Part II: Spectra, Cospectra, and Quadrant Analyses

M. A. Nelson Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

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E. R. Pardyjak Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

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M. J. Brown Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

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J. C. Klewicki Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire

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Abstract

Velocity data were obtained within Park Avenue in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, using three-dimensional sonic anemometers under unstable atmospheric conditions. These data are used to produce velocity spectra, cospectra, and weighted joint probability density functions at various heights and horizontal locations in the street canyon. This analysis has helped to describe a number of physically interesting urban flow phenomena. Previous research has shown that the ratio of Reynolds shear stresses to normal stresses is typically much smaller deep within the canopy than those ratios found at the top of canopy and in the roughness sublayer. The turbulence in this region exhibits significant contributions to all four quadrants of a weighted joint-probability density function of horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuations, yielding the characteristic small Reynolds shear stresses in the flow. The velocity cospectra measured at the base of the canopy show evidence of discrete frequency bands of both positive and negative correlation that yield a small correlation, as indicated by the Reynolds shear stresses. Two major peaks were often observed in the spectra and cospectra: a low-frequency peak that appears to be associated with vortex shedding off the buildings and a midfrequency peak generally associated with canyon geometry. The low-frequency peak was found to produce a countergradient contribution to the along-wind vertical velocity covariance. Standard spectral tests for local isotropy indicate that isotropic conditions occur at different frequencies depending on spatial location, demonstrating the need to be thorough when testing for local isotropy with the urban canopy.

Corresponding author address: M. A. Nelson, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group D-3, MS K551, Los Alamos, NM 87545. Email: nelsonm@lanl.gov

This article included in the Urban 2003 Experiment (JU2003) special collection.

Abstract

Velocity data were obtained within Park Avenue in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, using three-dimensional sonic anemometers under unstable atmospheric conditions. These data are used to produce velocity spectra, cospectra, and weighted joint probability density functions at various heights and horizontal locations in the street canyon. This analysis has helped to describe a number of physically interesting urban flow phenomena. Previous research has shown that the ratio of Reynolds shear stresses to normal stresses is typically much smaller deep within the canopy than those ratios found at the top of canopy and in the roughness sublayer. The turbulence in this region exhibits significant contributions to all four quadrants of a weighted joint-probability density function of horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuations, yielding the characteristic small Reynolds shear stresses in the flow. The velocity cospectra measured at the base of the canopy show evidence of discrete frequency bands of both positive and negative correlation that yield a small correlation, as indicated by the Reynolds shear stresses. Two major peaks were often observed in the spectra and cospectra: a low-frequency peak that appears to be associated with vortex shedding off the buildings and a midfrequency peak generally associated with canyon geometry. The low-frequency peak was found to produce a countergradient contribution to the along-wind vertical velocity covariance. Standard spectral tests for local isotropy indicate that isotropic conditions occur at different frequencies depending on spatial location, demonstrating the need to be thorough when testing for local isotropy with the urban canopy.

Corresponding author address: M. A. Nelson, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group D-3, MS K551, Los Alamos, NM 87545. Email: nelsonm@lanl.gov

This article included in the Urban 2003 Experiment (JU2003) special collection.

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