• Adams, D. K., , and A. C. Comrie, 1997: The North American monsoon. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 21972213.

  • Allwine, K. J., , J. H. Shinn, , G. E. Streit, , K. L. Clawson, , and M. Brown, 2002: Overview of URBAN 2000. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 521536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. T., , H. Kanamaru, , and J. O. Roads, 2004: The summertime atmospheric hydrologic cycle over the southwestern United States. J. Hydrometeor., 5 , 679692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banta, R. M., , L. S. Darby, , J. D. Fast, , B. D. Orr, , J. Pinto, , W. J. Shaw, , and C. D. Whiteman, 2004: Nocturnal low-level jet in a mountain basin complex. Part I: Evolution and effects on local flows. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 13481365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, L., , and S. Zhong, 2005: Sensitivity of MM5-simulated boundary layer characteristics to turbulence parameterizations. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 14671483.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biggs, W. G., , and M. E. Graves, 1962: A lake breeze index. J. Appl. Meteor., 1 , 474480.

  • Chen, Y., , F. L. Ludwig, , and R. L. Street, 2004: Stably stratified flows near a notched traverse ridge across the Salt Lake valley. J. Appl., Meteor., 43 , 13081328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cox, J. A., 2006: The sensitivity of thermally driven mountain flows to land cover change. Ph.D. thesis, University of Utah, 90 pp.

  • Crosman, E. T., 2005: Remote sensing of the surface temperature of the Great Salt Lake. M.S. thesis, Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, 98 pp. [Available online at http://www.met.utah.edu/research/saltlake/presentations/MSthesis/.].

  • Doran, J. C., , J. D. Fast, , and J. Horel, 2002: The VTMX 2000 campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 537551.

  • Dunn, L. B., , and S. V. Vasiloff, 2001: Tornadogenesis and operational considerations of the 11 August 1999 Salt Lake City tornado as seen from two different Doppler radars. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 377398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fast, J., 2003: Forecasts of valley circulations using the terrain-following and step-mountain vertical coordinates in the Meso-Eta Model. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 11921206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fast, J., , and L. Darby, 2004: An evaluation of mesoscale model prediction of down-valley and canyon flows and their consequences using Doppler lidar measurements during VTMX 2000. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 420436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gutzler, D. S., and Coauthors, 2005: The North American monsoon model assessment project: Integrating numerical modeling into a field-based process study. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 14231429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkes, H. B., 1947: Mountain and valley winds—With special reference to the diurnal mountain winds of the Great Salt Lake region. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 312 pp.

  • Horel, J., 2003: Terrain-forced mesoscale circulations. Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water: Dynamics, Climate, Physical Meteorology, Weather Systems, and Measurements, T. Potter and B. Colman, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, 561–573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horel, J., and Coauthors, 2002: MesoWest: Cooperative mesonets in the western United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 211225.

  • Laird, N. F., , D. A. R. Kristovich, , X-Z. Liang, , R. W. Arritt, , and K. Labas, 2001: Lake Michigan lake breezes: Climatology, local forcing, and synoptic environment. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 409424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ludwig, F. L., , J. Horel, , and C. D. Whiteman, 2004: Wind patterns in mountain valleys. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 969983.

  • Monti, P., , H. Fernando, , M. Princevac, , W. Chan, , T. Kowalewski, , and E. Pardyjak, 2002: Observations of flow and turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer over a slope. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 25132534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pielke, R. A., 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling. Academic Press, 612 pp.

  • Richner, H., , and T. Griesser, 1993: Air motion from potential temperature analysis on meso-β-scale over complex terrain during POLLUMET 1990 and 1991. Meteor. Z., 2 , 145152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rife, D. L., , T. T. Warner, , F. Chen, , and E. G. Astling, 2002: Mechanisms for diurnal boundary layer circulations in the Great Basin Desert. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 921938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Segal, M., , M. Leuthold, , R. W. Arritt, , C. Anderson, , and J. Shen, 1997: Small lake daytime breezes: Some observational and conceptual evaluations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 11351147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, J., 1998: Numerical modelling of the effects of vegetation and environmental conditions on the lake breeze. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 87 , 481498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, J. Q., , C. D. Whiteman, , W. J. Steenburgh, , and X. Bian, 2002: A climatological study of thermally driven wind systems of the U.S. Intermountain West. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 699708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stivari, S. M. S., , A. P. D. Oliveira, , H. A. Karam, , and J. Soares, 2003: Patterns of local circulation in the Itaipu Lake area: Numerical simulation of lake breeze. J. Appl. Meteor., 42 , 3750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sturman, A. P., and Coauthors, 2003: The Lake Tekapo Experiment (LTEX): An investigation of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 , 371380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whiteman, C. D., 2000: Mountain Meteorology: Fundamentals and Applications. Oxford University Press, 355 pp.

  • Zhong, S., , and J. Fast, 2003: An evaluation of the MM5, RAMS, and Meso-Eta models at subkilometer resolution using VTMX field campaign data in the Salt Lake Valley. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 13011322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zumpfe, D. E., 2004: A case study of a strong lake-breeze front in the Salt Lake Valley. M.S. thesis, Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, 72 pp. [Available online at http://www.met.utah.edu/jhorel/cirp/zumpfe_thesis.pdf.].

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 43 43 3
PDF Downloads 27 27 1

Lake-Breeze Fronts in the Salt Lake Valley

View More View Less
  • 1 NOAA Cooperative Institute for Regional Prediction, and Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Winds at the Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC) during the April–October period from 1948 to 2003 have been observed to shift to the north (up-valley direction) between late morning and afternoon on over 70% of the days without precipitation. Lake-breeze fronts that develop as a result of the differential heating between the air over the nearby Great Salt Lake and that over the lake’s surroundings are observed at SLC only a few times each month. Fewer lake-breeze fronts are observed during late July–early September than before or after that period. Interannual fluctuations in the areal extent of the shallow Great Salt Lake contribute to year-to-year variations in the number of lake-breeze frontal passages at SLC. Data collected during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) of October 2000 are used to examine the structure and evolution of a lake-breeze front that moved through the Salt Lake Valley on 17 October. The onset of upslope and up-valley winds occurred within the valley prior to the passage of the lake-breeze front. The lake-breeze front moved at roughly 3 m s−1 up the valley and was characterized near the surface by an abrupt increase in wind speed and dewpoint temperature over a distance of 3–4 km. Rapid vertical mixing of aerosols at the top of the 600–800-m-deep boundary layer was evident as the front passed.

* Current affiliation: National Weather Service, Great Falls, Montana

Corresponding author address: John Horel, 135 S 1460 E, Rm. 819, Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0110. Email: jhorel@met.utah.edu

Abstract

Winds at the Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC) during the April–October period from 1948 to 2003 have been observed to shift to the north (up-valley direction) between late morning and afternoon on over 70% of the days without precipitation. Lake-breeze fronts that develop as a result of the differential heating between the air over the nearby Great Salt Lake and that over the lake’s surroundings are observed at SLC only a few times each month. Fewer lake-breeze fronts are observed during late July–early September than before or after that period. Interannual fluctuations in the areal extent of the shallow Great Salt Lake contribute to year-to-year variations in the number of lake-breeze frontal passages at SLC. Data collected during the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) of October 2000 are used to examine the structure and evolution of a lake-breeze front that moved through the Salt Lake Valley on 17 October. The onset of upslope and up-valley winds occurred within the valley prior to the passage of the lake-breeze front. The lake-breeze front moved at roughly 3 m s−1 up the valley and was characterized near the surface by an abrupt increase in wind speed and dewpoint temperature over a distance of 3–4 km. Rapid vertical mixing of aerosols at the top of the 600–800-m-deep boundary layer was evident as the front passed.

* Current affiliation: National Weather Service, Great Falls, Montana

Corresponding author address: John Horel, 135 S 1460 E, Rm. 819, Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0110. Email: jhorel@met.utah.edu

Save