• Baik, J-J., Y. H. Kim, and H. Y. Chum, 2001: Dry and moist convection forced by an urban heat island. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 14621475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on sea-breeze-initiated precipitation. J. Hydrometeor., 2 , 193211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borys, R. D., D. H. Lowenthal, and D. L. Mitchell, 2000: The relationships among cloud microphysics, chemistry and precipitation rate in cold mountain clouds. Atmos. Environ., 34 , 25932602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borys, R. D., D. H. Lowenthal, S. A. Cohn, and W. O. J. Brown, 2003: Mountain and radar measurements of anthropogenic aerosol effects on snow growth and snowfall rate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1538, doi:10.1029/2002GL016855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A., 1979: Rainfall changes in summer caused by St. Louis. Science, 205 , 402404.

  • Changnon, S. A., R. R. Braham, R. G. Semonin, A. H. Auer, and J. Hales, 1981: METROMEX: A Review and Summary. Meteor. Monogr., No. 40, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 181 pp.

  • Chen, T-C., M-C. Yen, J-C. Hsieh, and R. W. Arritt, 1999: Diurnal and seasonal variations of the rainfall measured by the Automatic Rainfall and Meteorological Telemetry System in Taiwan. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 22992312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T-C., S-Y. Wang, and M-C. Yen, 2006: Interannual variation of the tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 19 , 57095720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, K., and R. Bornstein, 2002: MM5 simulation of urban induced convective precipitation over Atlanta. Preprints, Fourth Conf. on the Urban Environment, Norfolk, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5–6.

  • Diem, J. E., and D. P. Brown, 2003: Anthropogenic impacts on summer precipitation in central Arizona, U.S.A. Prof. Geogr., 55 , 3. 343355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, P. G., and T. L. Mote, 2003: Patterns and causes of Atlanta’s urban heat island–initiated precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor., 42 , 12731284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fujibe, F., 2003: Long-term surface wind changes in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the afternoon of sunny days in the warm season. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 81 , 141149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1995: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 122 pp.

  • Huff, F. A., 1986: Urban hydrometeorology review. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67 , 703712.

  • Jin, M., and J. M. Shepherd, 2005: Inclusion of urban landscape in a climate model: How can satellite data help? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 681689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kitada, T., K. Okamura, and S. Tanaka, 1998: Effects of topography and urbanization on local winds and thermal environment in the Nohbi Plain, coastal region of central Japan: A numerical analysis by mesoscale meteorological model with a kϵ turbulence model. J. Appl. Meteor., 37 , 10261046.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-M., and H. Weng, 1999: Interannual, decadal–interdecadal, and global warming signals in sea surface temperature during 1955–97. J. Climate, 12 , 12571267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, S. C., C-H. Wang, C-J. Shiu, H-W. Chang, C-K. Hsiao, and S-H. Liaw, 2002: Reduction in sunshine duration over Taiwan: Causes and implications. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci., 10 , 619632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maddox, 1981: Satellite depiction of the life cycle of a mesoscale convective complex. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 15831586.

  • Oke, T. R., 1987: Boundary Layer Climates. 2d ed. Methuen, 435 pp.

  • Ramanathan, V., P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, 2001: Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science, 294 , 21192124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenfeld, D., 1999: TRMM observed first direct evidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 31053108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenfeld, D., 2000: Suppression of rain and snow by urban air pollution. Science, 287 , 17931796.

  • Rozoff, C., W. R. Cotton, and J. O. Adegoke, 2003: Simulation of St. Louis, Missouri, land use impacts on thunderstorms. J. Appl. Meteor., 42 , 716738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shepherd, J. M., 2005: A review of current investigations of urban-induced rainfall and recommendations for the future. Earth Interactions,9. [Available online at http://EarthInteractions.org.].

  • Shepherd, J. M., and S. J. Burian, 2003: Detection of urban-induced rainfall anomalies in a major coastal city. Earth Interactions,7. [Available online at http://EarthInteractions.org.].

  • Shepherd, J. M., H. Pierce, and A. J. Negri, 2002: Rainfall modification by major urban areas: Observations from spaceborne rain radar on the TRMM satellite. J. Appl. Meteor., 41 , 689701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takahashi, H., 2003: Secular variation in the occurrence property of summertime daily rainfall amount in and around the Tokyo metropolitan area (in Japanese with an English abstract). Tenki, 50 , 3141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsai, Y-I., 2005: Atmospheric visibility trends in an urban area in Taiwan 1961–2003. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 55555567.

  • Wang, H., 1998: Looking at Taiwan (in Chinese). Great Land Geographic Inc., 191 pp.

  • Yen, M-C., and T-C. Chen, 2000: Seasonal variation of the rainfall over Taiwan. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 803809.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 16 16 16
PDF Downloads 12 12 12

Enhancement of Afternoon Thunderstorm Activity by Urbanization in a Valley: Taipei

View More View Less
  • 1 Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric Science, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan
Restricted access

Abstract

Located in northern Taiwan, Taipei is a metropolis surrounded by hills and mountains that form a basin in which two river valleys funnel the surface airflow of this basin to the open sea. Because of the southwest monsoon, summer is a dry season in northern Taiwan but is the season of maximum rainfall in the Taipei basin. This unusual summer rainfall maximum in Taipei is largely produced by afternoon/evening thunderstorms—in particular, on the downwind side and slopes of mountains south of the city. The population in the city of Taipei and the county in which this city is located has more than tripled during the past four decades while land use for building and surface construction increased by a factor of 3. This urbanization may contribute to an increase of 1.5°C in daily mean temperature, a decrease of 1°C in daily temperature range, an increase of more than 67% in the frequency of afternoon/evening thunderstorms, and an increase of 77% in rainfall generated by thunderstorms. These findings may explain the reduction in the water supply deficit to the Taipei metropolitan area and the ground subsidence of the Taipei basin caused by the excessive use of groundwater. Results of this study also provide important information for urban planning and pollution control and for management of the increasing traffic hazards caused by the enhanced thunderstorm activity and rainfall.

Corresponding author address: Tsing-Chang (Mike) Chen, Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, 3010 Agronomy Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. Email: tmchen@iastate.edu

Abstract

Located in northern Taiwan, Taipei is a metropolis surrounded by hills and mountains that form a basin in which two river valleys funnel the surface airflow of this basin to the open sea. Because of the southwest monsoon, summer is a dry season in northern Taiwan but is the season of maximum rainfall in the Taipei basin. This unusual summer rainfall maximum in Taipei is largely produced by afternoon/evening thunderstorms—in particular, on the downwind side and slopes of mountains south of the city. The population in the city of Taipei and the county in which this city is located has more than tripled during the past four decades while land use for building and surface construction increased by a factor of 3. This urbanization may contribute to an increase of 1.5°C in daily mean temperature, a decrease of 1°C in daily temperature range, an increase of more than 67% in the frequency of afternoon/evening thunderstorms, and an increase of 77% in rainfall generated by thunderstorms. These findings may explain the reduction in the water supply deficit to the Taipei metropolitan area and the ground subsidence of the Taipei basin caused by the excessive use of groundwater. Results of this study also provide important information for urban planning and pollution control and for management of the increasing traffic hazards caused by the enhanced thunderstorm activity and rainfall.

Corresponding author address: Tsing-Chang (Mike) Chen, Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, 3010 Agronomy Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. Email: tmchen@iastate.edu

Save