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Characteristics of Vertical Circulation in the Convective Boundary Layer over the Huaihe River Basin in China in the Early Summer of 2004

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  • 1 Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • | 2 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • | 3 Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • | 4 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • | 5 Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • | 6 Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Yokohama, Japan
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a humid terrestrial area, the Huaihe River basin in China, which is covered by a large, nearly flat plain with uniform farmland. Data were collected in early summer 2004 using a 32-m flux tower and a 1290-MHz wind profiler radar. When mature wheat fields or bare fields dominated (the first period), the sensible heat flux (SHF) from the land surface was nearly equal to the latent heat flux (LHF). After vegetation changed to paddy fields (the second period), the LHF was much larger than the SHF. Two clear days from the first and second periods were selected and are referred to as the dry case and wet case, respectively. For the dry case, a deep CBL developed rapidly from the early morning, and thermal updrafts in the CBL were vigorous. For the wet case, a shallow CBL developed slowly from late morning, and thermals were weak. To study the thermodynamic process in the CBL, a large-eddy simulation (LES) was conducted. The simulation adequately reproduced the surface heat flux and the CBL development for both the dry case and the wet case. For the dry case, sensible heat contributed to nearly all of the buoyancy flux. In contrast, for the wet case, heat and moisture made equal contributions. The large contribution of moisture to the buoyancy is one of the main characteristics of the CBL over humid terrestrial areas.

Corresponding author address: Satoshi Endo, Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464–8601, Japan. Email: endo@rain.hyarc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a humid terrestrial area, the Huaihe River basin in China, which is covered by a large, nearly flat plain with uniform farmland. Data were collected in early summer 2004 using a 32-m flux tower and a 1290-MHz wind profiler radar. When mature wheat fields or bare fields dominated (the first period), the sensible heat flux (SHF) from the land surface was nearly equal to the latent heat flux (LHF). After vegetation changed to paddy fields (the second period), the LHF was much larger than the SHF. Two clear days from the first and second periods were selected and are referred to as the dry case and wet case, respectively. For the dry case, a deep CBL developed rapidly from the early morning, and thermal updrafts in the CBL were vigorous. For the wet case, a shallow CBL developed slowly from late morning, and thermals were weak. To study the thermodynamic process in the CBL, a large-eddy simulation (LES) was conducted. The simulation adequately reproduced the surface heat flux and the CBL development for both the dry case and the wet case. For the dry case, sensible heat contributed to nearly all of the buoyancy flux. In contrast, for the wet case, heat and moisture made equal contributions. The large contribution of moisture to the buoyancy is one of the main characteristics of the CBL over humid terrestrial areas.

Corresponding author address: Satoshi Endo, Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464–8601, Japan. Email: endo@rain.hyarc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

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