• Akbari, H., and H. Taha, 1992: The impact of trees and white surfaces on residential heating and cooling energy use in four Canadian cities. Energy, 17 , 2. 141149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akbari, H., and S. Konopacki, 2005: Calculating energy saving potentials from heat island reduction strategies. Energy Policy, 33 , 751756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akbari, H., A. Rosenfeld, and H. Taha, 1990: Summer heat islands, urban trees, and white surfaces. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Rep. LBL- 28308, 8 pp.

  • Akbari, H., S. Davis, S. Dorsano, J. Huang, and S. Winert, 1992: Cooling Our Communities—A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis, Climate Change Division, 217 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akbari, H., M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha, 2001: Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Sol. Energy, 70 , 3. 295310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akbari, H., and Coauthors, 2004: Cool colored materials for roofs. Proc. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, 10 pp.

  • Akbari, H., R. Levinson, W. Miller, and P. Berdahl, 2005: Cool colored roofs to save energy and improve air quality. Proc. Int. Conf. on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment, Santorini, Greece, AIVC, INIVE, ISES, and UIA, 89–100.

  • ASTM Standard E903-96, 1996: Standard test method for solar absorptance, reflectance and transmittance of materials using integrating spheres. ASTM International, 9 pp.

  • ASTM Standard G159-91, 1996: Standard tables for references solar spectral irradiance at air mass 1.5: Direct normal and hemispherical for a 37° tilted surface. ASTM International, 10 pp.

  • Berdahl, P., and S. E. Bretz, 1997: Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. Energy Build., 25 , 149158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bretz, S., H. Akbari, and A. Rosenfeld, 1997: Practical issues for using high-albedo materials to mitigate urban heat islands. Atmos. Environ., 32 , 1. 95101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dandou, A., M. Tombrou, E. Akylas, N. Soulakellis, and E. Bossioli, 2005: Development and evaluation of an urban parameterization scheme in the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). J. Geophys. Res., 110 .D10102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Energy Star, cited. 2008: Roof product list. [Available online at http://www.energystar.gov/ia/products/prod_lists/roofs_prod_list.pdf.].

  • Fishman, B., H. Taha, and H. Akbari, 1994: Mesoscale cooling effects of high albedo surfaces: Analysis of meteorological data from White Sands National Monument and White Sands Missile Range. LBL Rep. 35056, 30 pp.

  • Gabersek, S., and H. Taha, 1996: Impacts of surface characteristics changes on urban heat island intensity. Proc. 14th Int. Congress of Biometeorology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, International Society of Biometeorology, 8 pp.

  • Golden, J. S., 2004: The built environment induced urban Heat Island effect in rapidly urbanizing arid regions—A sustainable urban engineering complexity. Environ. Sci., 1 , 321349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Golden, J. S., and K. Kaloush, 2006: Mesoscale and microscale evaluation of surface pavement impacts on the urban heat island effects. Int. J. Pavement Eng., 7 , 1. 3752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, K. A., and M. E. Finster, 1999: The urban heat island, photochemical smog, and Chicago: Local features of the problem and solution. Northwestern University Tech. Rep., Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division, EPA, 134 pp. [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/hiri/resources/publications.html.].

  • Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398 +STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 138 pp.

  • Grimmond, C. S. B., and T. R. Oke, 1999: Heat storage in urban areas: Local scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 922940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., H. A. Cleugh, and T. R. Oke, 1991: An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmos. Environ., 25 , 311326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grossman-Clarke, S., J. A. Zehnder, W. L. Stefanov, Y. Liu, and M. A. Zoldak, 2005: Urban modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model and the effects on near-surface variables in an arid metropolitan region. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 12811297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gui, J. G., P. E. Phelan, K. E. Kaloush, and J. S. Golden, 2007: Impact of pavement thermophysical properties on surface temperatures. ASCE J. Mater. Civil Eng., 19 , 683690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hassid, S., M. Santamouris, N. Papanikolaou, A. Linardi, and N. Klitsikas, 2000: The effect of the Athens heat island on air conditioning load. J. Energy Build., 32 , 2. 131141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katsara, A., 2007: A study on the determination of the anthropogenic heat from the transportation sector, the electricity consumption and the buildings for the municipality of Athens. Master’s thesis, Dept. of Applied Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 130 pp.

  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, cited. 2008: Cool roofing materials database. [Available online at http://eetd.lbl.gov/coolroof/].

  • Livada, I., M. Santamouris, K. Niachou, N. Papanikolaou, and G. Mihalakakou, 2002: The thermal island effect in the extended region of Athens. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 71 , 219230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mihalakakou, G., H. Flocas, M. Santamouris, and C. Helmis, 2002: The impact of synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation on the urban heat island effect over Athens, Greece. J. Appl. Meteor., 41 , 519527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pielke, R., 1974: A three-dimensional numerical model of the sea breeze over South Florida. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102 , 115139.

  • Pomerantz, M., B. Ponm, H. Akbari, and S. C. Chang, 2000: The effects of pavement temperatures on air temperatures in large cities. Heat Island Group Rep. LBNL-43442, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 20 pp.

  • Rosenfeld, A., H. Akbari, S. Bretz, B. Fishman, D. Kurn, D. Sailor, and H. Taha, 1995: Mitigation of urban heat islands: Material, utility programs, updates. Energy Build., 22 , 255265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenfeld, A., J. J. Romm, H. Akbari, and M. Pomerantz, 1998: Cool communities: Strategies for heat islands mitigation and smog reduction. Energy Build., 28 , 5162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roth, M., T. R. Oke, and W. J. Emery, 1989: Satellite-derived urban heat island from three coastal cities and the utilization of such data in urban climatology. Int. J. Remote Sens., 10 , 16991720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sailor, D., 1993: Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 188 pp.

  • Sailor, D., 1995: Simulated urban climate response to modifications in surface albedo and vegetative cover. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 16941704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santamouris, M., 2001: Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment. James and James Science, 402 pp.

  • Santamouris, M., 2006: Heat island research in Europe – The state of the art. J. Adv. Build. Energy Res., 1 .28 pp.

  • Santamouris, M., G. Mihalakakou, N. Papanikolaou, and D. N. Assimakopoulos, 1999: A neural network approach for modeling the heat island phenomenon in urban areas during the summer period. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 337340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santamouris, M., N. Papanikolaou, I. Livada, I. Koronakis, C. Georgakis, A. Argiriou, and D. N. Assimakopoulos, 2001: On the impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings. Sol. Energy, 70 , 201216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siegel, R., and J. Howell, 2002: Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer. 4th ed. Taylor and Francis, 868 pp.

  • Stathopoulou, M., A. Synnefa, C. Cartalis, M. Santamouris, and H. Akbari, 2007: A heat island study of Athens using high-resolution satellite imagery and measurements of the optical and thermal properties of commonly used building and paving materials. Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment and 28th AIVC Conf., Crete, Greece, AIVC, INIVE, UIA, and EPBD, 1016–1020.

  • Synnefa, A., M. Santamouris, and I. Livada, 2006: A study of the thermal performance of reflective coatings for the urban environment. Sol. Energy, 80 , 968981.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Synnefa, A., M. Santamouris, and K. Apostolakis, 2007: On the development, optical properties and thermal performance of cool colored coatings for the urban environment. Sol. Energy, 81 , 488497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., 1994: Meteorological and photochemical simulations of the South Coast Air Basin. Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Air Quality in the South Coast Air Basin—Phase II, LBL-35728, H. Taha, Ed., Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 161–218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., 1997a: Urban climates and heat islands: Albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat. Energy Build., 27 , 1007. 99103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., 1997b: Modeling the impacts of large-scale albedo changes on ozone air quality in the South Coast Air Basin. Atmos. Environ., 31 , 16671676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., 2005: Urban surface modification as a potential ozone air-quality improvement strategy in California—Phase one: Initial mesoscale modeling. Altostratus, Inc., for the California Energy Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research Rep. CEC-500-2005-128, 132 pp.

  • Taha, H., H. Akbari, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Huang, 1988: Residential cooling loads and the urban heat island—The effects of albedo. Build. Environ., 23 , 271283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., S. Douglas, and J. Haney, 1994: The UAM sensitivity analysis: The August 26–28 1987 oxidant episode. Analysis of Energy Efficiency and Air Quality in the South Coast Air Basin—Phase II, Rep. LBL-35728, H. Taha et al., Eds., Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 161–218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., S. Douglas, and J. Haney, 1997: Mesoscale meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetation. Energy Build., 25 , 2. 169177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., S. Konopacki, and S. Gabersek, 1999: Impacts of large-scale surface modifications on meteorological conditions and energy use: A 10-region modeling study. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 62 , 3–4. 175185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taha, H., C. Chang, and H. Akbari, 2000: Meteorological and air-quality impacts of heat island mitigation measures in three U.S. cities. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Rep. LBL-44222, 51 pp.

  • Taha, H., H. Hammer, and H. Akbari, 2002: Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban surface albedo and vegetative cover in the greater Toronto area, Canada. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL Rep. 49210, 140 pp.

  • Voogt, J. A., and T. R. Oke, 1997: Complete urban surface temperatures. J. Appl. Meteor., 36 , 11171132.

  • Voogt, J. A., and T. R. Oke, 2003: Thermal remote sensing of urban climates. Remote Sens. Environ., 86 , 370384.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1578 778 24
PDF Downloads 1398 724 122

On the Use of Cool Materials as a Heat Island Mitigation Strategy

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Applied Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • | 2 Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece
Restricted access

Abstract

The mitigation of the heat island effect can be achieved by the use of cool materials that are characterized by high solar reflectance and infrared emittance values. Several types of cool materials have been tested and their optical and thermal properties reveal that these materials can be classified as “cool” with the ability to maintain lower surface temperatures. Cool materials can be used on buildings and other surfaces of the urban environment. Based on these results, a modeling study was undertaken to assess the urban heat island effect over Athens, Greece, a densely populated city, by trying to analyze the impacts of large-scale increases in surface albedo on ambient temperature. Numerical simulations were performed by the “urbanized” version of the nonhydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5, version 3-6-1). Two scenarios of modified albedo were studied: a moderate and an extreme increase in albedo scenario. It was found that large-scale increases in albedo could lower ambient air temperatures by 2°C. Furthermore, the impact of high albedo measures on heat island magnitude was estimated by creating a spatial representation of the urban heat island effect over the modeled area. The results of this study can help to promote the adoption of high albedo measures in building energy codes and urban planning regulations.

Corresponding author address: A. Synnefa, Department of Applied Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Build. Physics 5, 15784 Athens, Greece. Email: asynnefa@phys.uoa.gr

Abstract

The mitigation of the heat island effect can be achieved by the use of cool materials that are characterized by high solar reflectance and infrared emittance values. Several types of cool materials have been tested and their optical and thermal properties reveal that these materials can be classified as “cool” with the ability to maintain lower surface temperatures. Cool materials can be used on buildings and other surfaces of the urban environment. Based on these results, a modeling study was undertaken to assess the urban heat island effect over Athens, Greece, a densely populated city, by trying to analyze the impacts of large-scale increases in surface albedo on ambient temperature. Numerical simulations were performed by the “urbanized” version of the nonhydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5, version 3-6-1). Two scenarios of modified albedo were studied: a moderate and an extreme increase in albedo scenario. It was found that large-scale increases in albedo could lower ambient air temperatures by 2°C. Furthermore, the impact of high albedo measures on heat island magnitude was estimated by creating a spatial representation of the urban heat island effect over the modeled area. The results of this study can help to promote the adoption of high albedo measures in building energy codes and urban planning regulations.

Corresponding author address: A. Synnefa, Department of Applied Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Build. Physics 5, 15784 Athens, Greece. Email: asynnefa@phys.uoa.gr

Save