• Berge, E., , H-C. Huang, , J. Chang, , and T-H. Liu, 2001: A study of the importance of initial conditions for photochemical oxidant modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 13471363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Byun, D. W., , and J. K. S. Ching, 1999: Science algorithms of the EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) modeling system. EPA/600/R-99/030, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 19 pp.

  • Chameides, W. L., , R. Linsay, , R. Richardson, , and C. Kiang, 1988: The role of biogenic hydrocarbons in urban photochemical smog: Atlanta as a case study. Science, 241 , 14731475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, J. S., , S. Jin, , Y. Li, , M. Beauharnois, , C-H. Lu, , H-C. Huang, , S. Tanrikulu, , and J. Damassa, 1997: The SARMAP Air Quality Model final report. Air Resource Board, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA, 82 pp.

  • Dudhia, J., , D. Gill, , Y-R. Guo, , K. Manning, , W. Wang, , and J. Chriszar, cited. 2004: PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user’s guide: MM5 Modeling System Version 3. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/MM5_tut_Web_notes/tutorialTOC.htm.].

  • Giorgi, F., , and C. Shields, 1999: Tests of precipitation parameterizations available in latest version of NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over continental United States. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 63536375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , W. J. Shuttleworth, , and Z-L. Yang, 2002: Sensitivity of the modeled North America monsoon regional climate to convective parameterization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 12821298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G. A., 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 764787.

  • Guenther, A., and Coauthors, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 88738892.

  • Hogrefe, C., and Coauthors, 2004: Simulating changes in regional air pollution over the eastern United States due to changes in global and regional climate and emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .D22301, doi:10.1029/2004JD004690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houyoux, M. R., , J. M. Vukovich, , C. J. Coats Jr., , and N. J. M. Wheeler, 2000: Emission inventory development and processing for the seasonal model for regional air quality (SMRAQ) project. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 90799090.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, H-C., , and J. S. Chang, 2001: On the performance of numerical solvers for chemistry submodel in three-dimensional air quality models. 1. Box-model simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 2017520188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, H-C., , X-Z. Liang, , K. E. Kunkel, , M. Caughey, , and A. Williams, 2007: Seasonal simulation of tropospheric ozone over the Midwest and northeast United States: An application of a coupled regional climate and air quality modeling system. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 945960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J. S., , and J. M. Fritsch, 1993: Convective parameterization in mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., , W. Ebisuzaki, , J. Woolen, , S-K. Yang, , J. J. Hnilo, , M. Fiorino, , and G. L. Potter, 2002: The NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinnee, E., , C. Geron, , and T. Pierce, 1997: United States land use inventory for estimating biogenic ozone precursor emissions. Ecol. Appl., 7 , 4658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuhns, H., , M. Green, , and V. Etyemezian, 2003: Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) study emissions inventory. Prepared for BRAVO Technical Steering Committee, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV, 55 pp.

  • Langner, J., , R. Bergstrom, , and V. Poltescu, 2005: Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 11291141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leung, L. R., , and W. I. Gustafson Jr., 2005: Potential regional climate change and implications to U.S. air quality. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L16711, doi:10.1029/2005GL022911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, X-Z., , K. E. Kunkel, , and A. N. Samel, 2001: Development of a regional climate model for U.S. Midwest application. Part I: Sensitivity to buffer zone treatment. J. Climate, 14 , 43634378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, X-Z., , L. Li, , A. Dai, , and K. E. Kunkel, 2004a: Regional climate model simulation of summer precipitation diurnal cycle over the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L24208, doi:10.1029/2004GL021054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, X-Z., , L. Li, , K. E. Kunkel, , M. Ting, , and J. X. L. Wang, 2004b: Regional climate model simulation of U.S. precipitation during 1982–2002. Part I: Annual cycle. J. Climate, 17 , 35103529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, X-Z., , J. Pan, , J. Zhu, , K. E. Kunkel, , J. X-L. Wang, , and A. Dai, 2006: Regional climate model downscaling of the U.S. summer climate and future change. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D10108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, X-Z., , M. Xu, , K. E. Kunkel, , G. A. Grell, , and J. Kain, 2007: Regional climate model simulation of U.S.–Mexico summer precipitation using the optimal ensemble of two cumulus parameterizations. J. Climate, 20 , 52015207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mapes, B. E., , T. T. Warner, , M. Xu, , and D. J. Gochis, 2004: Comparison of cumulus parameterizations and entrainment using domain-mean wind divergence in a regional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 12841295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murazaki, K., , and P. Hess, 2006: How does climate change contribute to surface ozone change over the United States? J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D05301, doi:10.1029/2005JD005873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierce, T., , C. Geron, , L. Bender, , R. Dennis, , G. Tonnesen, , and A. Guenther, 1998: Influence of increased isoprene emissions on regional ozone modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 2561125629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, U., , and P. Alpert, 1993: Factor separation in numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 21072115.

  • Steiner, A. L., , S. Tonse, , R. C. Cohen, , A. H. Goldstein, , and R. A. Harley, 2006: Influence of future climate and emissions on regional air quality in California. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D18303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stockwell, W. R., , P. Middleton, , J. S. Chang, , and X. Tang, 1990: The second generation Regional Acid Deposition Model chemical mechanism for regional air quality modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , 1634316367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, Z., , S. Larson, , D. J. Wuebbles, , A. Williams, , and M. Caughey, 2003: A seasonal simulation of biogenic contributions to ground-level ozone over the continental United States. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4404, doi:10.1029/2002JD002945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tesche, T. W., , P. Georgopoulos, , J. H. Seinfeld, , G. Cass, , F. L. Lurmann, , and P. M. Roth, 1990: Improvement of procedures for evaluating photochemical models. Report prepared by Radian Corporation for the State of California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA, 176 pp.

  • Wang, W., , and N. L. Seaman, 1997: A comparison study of convective parameterization schemes in a mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 252278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A., , M. Caughey, , H-C. Huang, , X-Z. Liang, , K. Kunkel, , Z. Tao, , S. Larson, , and D. Wuebbles, 2001: Comparison of emissions processing by EMS95 and SMOKE over the Midwestern U.S. Tenth Int. Emission Inventory Conf.: One Atmosphere, One Inventory, Many Challenges, Denver, CO, Environmental Protection Agency, 13 pp. [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/conference/ei10/modeling/williams.pdf.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin, D. Z., , W. M. Jiang, , H. Roth, , and E. Giroux, 2004: Improvement of biogenic emissions estimation in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley and its impact on particulate matter modeling results. Atmos. Environ., 38 , 507521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, J., , and X-Z. Liang, 2005: Regional climate model simulation of U.S. soil temperature and moisture during 1982–2002. J. Geophys. Res., 110 .D24110, doi:10.1029/2005JD006472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, J., , and X-Z. Liang, 2007: Regional climate model simulations of U.S. precipitation and surface air temperature during 1982–2002: Interannual variation. J. Climate, 20 , 218232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 24 24 7
PDF Downloads 4 4 1

Sensitivity of Surface Ozone Simulation to Cumulus Parameterization

View More View Less
  • 1 Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, Illinois
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Different cumulus schemes cause significant discrepancies in simulated precipitation, cloud cover, and temperature, which in turn lead to remarkable differences in simulated biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and surface ozone concentrations. As part of an effort to investigate the impact (and its uncertainty) of climate changes on U.S. air quality, this study evaluates the sensitivity of BVOC emissions and surface ozone concentrations to the Grell (GR) and Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterizations. Overall, using the KF scheme yields less cloud cover, larger incident solar radiation, warmer surface temperature, and higher boundary layer height and hence generates more BVOC emissions than those using the GR scheme. As a result, the KF (versus GR) scheme produces more than 10 ppb of summer mean daily maximum 8-h ozone concentration over broad regions, resulting in a doubling of the number of high-ozone occurrences. The contributions of meteorological conditions versus BVOC emissions on regional ozone sensitivities to the choice of the cumulus scheme largely offset each other in the California and Texas regions, but the contrast in BVOC emissions dominates over that in the meteorological conditions for ozone differences in the Midwest and Northeast regions. The result demonstrates the necessity of considering the uncertainty of future ozone projections that are identified with alternative model physics configurations.

* Current affiliation: Science Applications International Corporation, Camp Springs, Maryland

Corresponding author address: Zhining Tao, Illinois State Water Survey, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 2204 Griffith Dr., Champaign, IL 61820. Email: ztao@uiuc.edu

Abstract

Different cumulus schemes cause significant discrepancies in simulated precipitation, cloud cover, and temperature, which in turn lead to remarkable differences in simulated biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and surface ozone concentrations. As part of an effort to investigate the impact (and its uncertainty) of climate changes on U.S. air quality, this study evaluates the sensitivity of BVOC emissions and surface ozone concentrations to the Grell (GR) and Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterizations. Overall, using the KF scheme yields less cloud cover, larger incident solar radiation, warmer surface temperature, and higher boundary layer height and hence generates more BVOC emissions than those using the GR scheme. As a result, the KF (versus GR) scheme produces more than 10 ppb of summer mean daily maximum 8-h ozone concentration over broad regions, resulting in a doubling of the number of high-ozone occurrences. The contributions of meteorological conditions versus BVOC emissions on regional ozone sensitivities to the choice of the cumulus scheme largely offset each other in the California and Texas regions, but the contrast in BVOC emissions dominates over that in the meteorological conditions for ozone differences in the Midwest and Northeast regions. The result demonstrates the necessity of considering the uncertainty of future ozone projections that are identified with alternative model physics configurations.

* Current affiliation: Science Applications International Corporation, Camp Springs, Maryland

Corresponding author address: Zhining Tao, Illinois State Water Survey, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 2204 Griffith Dr., Champaign, IL 61820. Email: ztao@uiuc.edu

Save