• Agam, N., and P. R. Berliner, 2006: Dew formation and water vapor adsorption in semi-arid environments: A review. J. Arid Environ., 65 , 572590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumgardner Jr., R. E., S. S. Isil, T. F. Lavery, C. M. Rogers, and V. A. Mohnen, 2003: Estimates of cloud water deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program sites in the Appalachian Mountains. J. Air Waste Manage., 53 , 291308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belot, Y., and D. Gauthier, 1975: Transport of micronic particles from atmosphere to foliar surfaces. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Biosphere, D. A. de Vries and N. H. Afgan, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, 583–591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruijnzeel, L. A., and J. Proctor, 1993: Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane cloud forests: What do we really know? Proc. Int. Symp. on Tropical Mountain Cloud Forests, San Juan, PR, American Association of Tropical Biology, 25–46.

  • Burgess, S. S. O., and T. E. Dawson, 2004: The contribution of fog to the water relations of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don): Foliar uptake and prevention of dehydration. Plant Cell Environ., 27 , 10231034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burkard, R., T. Wrzesinsky, W. Eugster, and O. Klemm, 2001a: Vertical flux divergence during fog deposition. Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Fog and Fog Collection, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, Canadian International Development Agency and others, 161–164.

  • Burkard, R., T. Wrzesinsky, W. Eugster, and O. Klemm, 2001b: Quantification of fog deposition with two similar setups. Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Fog and Fog Collection, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, Canadian International Development Agency and others, 185–188.

  • Burkard, R., W. Eugster, T. Wrzesinsky, and O. Klemm, 2002: Vertical divergence of fogwater fluxes above a spruce forest. Atmos. Res., 64 , 133145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavelier, J., and G. Goldstein, 1989: Mist and fog interception in elfin cloud forests in Colombia and Venezuela. J. Trop. Ecol., 5 , 309322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cereceda, P., P. Osses, H. Larrain, M. Farías, M. Lagos, R. Pinto, and R. S. Schemenauer, 2002: Advective, orographic, and radiation fog in the Tarapacá region, Chile. Atmos. Res., 64 , 261271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chamberlain, A. C., 1975: The movement of particles in plant communities. Principles. Vol. 1, Vegetation and the Atmosphere, J. L. Monteith, Ed., Academic Press, 155–203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dasch, J. M., 1988: Hydrological and chemical inputs to fir trees from rain and clouds during a 1-month study at Clingmans Peak, NC. Atmos. Environ., 22 , 22552262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, T. E., 1998: Fog in the California redwood forest: Ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia, 117 , 476485.

  • Deardorff, J. W., 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res., 83 , 18891903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deirmendjian, D., 1969: Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions. Elsevier, 312 pp.

  • Dickinson, R. E., A. Henderson Sellers, and P. J. Kennedy, 1993: Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version 1e as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, 72 pp.

  • Eugster, W., R. Burkard, O. Klemm, and T. Wrzesinsky, 2001: Fog deposition measurements with the eddy covariance method. Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Fog and Fog Collection, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, Canadian International Development Agency and others, 193–196.

  • Foken, T., and B. Wichura, 1996: Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements. Agric. For. Meteor., 78 , 83105.

  • Herckes, P., P. Mirabel, and H. Wortham, 2002: Cloud water deposition at a high-elevation site in the Vosges Mountains (France). Sci. Total Environ., 296 , 5975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holder, C. D., 2006: The hydrological significance of cloud forests in the Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Geoforum, 37 , 8293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holwerda, F., R. Burkard, W. Eugster, F. N. Scatena, A. G. C. A. Meesters, and L. A. Bruijnzeel, 2006: Estimating fog deposition at a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest site: Comparison of the water budget and eddy covariance methods. Hydrol. Process., 20 , 26692692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutley, L. B., D. Doley, D. J. Yates, and A. Boonsaner, 1997: Water balance of an Australian subtropical rainforest at altitude: The ecological and physiological significance of intercepted cloud and fog. Aust. J. Bot., 45 , 311329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ingraham, N. L., and R. A. Matthews, 1988: Fog drip as a source of groundwater recharge in northern Kenya. Water Resour. Res., 24 , 14061410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ingraham, N. L., and R. A. Matthews, 1995: The importance of fog-drip water to vegetation: Point Reyes Peninsula, California. J. Hydrol., 164 , 269285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joslin, J. D., S. F. Mueller, and M. H. Wolfe, 1990: Tests of models of cloudwater deposition to forest canopies using artificial and living collectors. Atmos. Environ., 24A , 30073019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Juvik, J. O., and D. Nullet, 1995: Comments on “A proposed standard fog collector for use in high-elevation regions”. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 21082110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katata, G., H. Nagai, H. Ueda, N. Agam, and P. R. Berliner, 2007: Development of a land surface model including evaporation and adsorption processes in the soil for the land–air exchange in arid regions. J. Hydrometeor., 8 , 13071324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klemm, O., and T. Wrzesinsky, 2007: Fog deposition fluxes of water and ions to a mountainous site in central Europe. Tellus B, 59 , 705714.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klemm, O., T. Wrzesinsky, and C. Scheer, 2005: Fog water flux at a canopy top: Direct measurement versus one-dimensional model. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 53755386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kondo, J., and T. Watanabe, 1992: Studies on the bulk transfer coefficients over a vegetated surface with a multilayer energy budget model. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 21832199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalski, A. S., and R. J. Vong, 1999: Near-surface fluxes of cloud water evolve vertically. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 26632684.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lovett, G. M., 1984: Rates and mechanisms of cloud water deposition to a subalpine balsam fir forest. Atmos. Environ., 18 , 361371.

  • Magarey, R. D., J. M. Russo, R. C. Seem, and D. M. Gadoury, 2005: Surface wetness duration under controlled environmental conditions. Agric. For. Meteor., 128 , 111122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May, K. R., and R. Clifford, 1967: The impaction of aerosol particles on cylinders, spheres, ribbons, and discs. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 10 , 8395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McFarlane, N. A., G. J. Boer, J-P. Blanchet, and M. Lazare, 1992: The Canadian Climate Centre second-generation general circulation model and its equilibrium climate. J. Climate, 5 , 10131044.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyers, T., and K. T. Paw U, 1986: Testing of a higher-order closure model for modeling airflow within and above plant canopies. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 37 , 297311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, E. K., A. J. Friedland, E. A. Arons, V. A. Mohnen, J. J. Battles, J. A. Panek, J. Kadlecek, and A. H. Johnson, 1993: Atmospheric deposition to forests along an elevational gradient at Whiteface Mountain, NY, U.S. Atmos. Environ., 27A , 21212136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mueller, S. F., J. D. Joslin, and M. H. Wolfe, 1991: Estimating cloud water deposition to subalpine spruce–fir forests. II. Model testing. Atmos. Environ., 25A , 11051122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagai, H., 2002: Validation and sensitivity analysis of a new atmosphere–soil–vegetation model. J. Appl. Meteor., 41 , 160176.

  • Nagai, H., 2003: Validation and sensitivity analysis of a new atmosphere–soil–vegetation model. Part II: Impacts on in-canopy latent heat flux over a winter wheat field determined by detailed calculation of canopy radiation transmission and stomatal resistance. J. Appl. Meteor., 42 , 434451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagai, H., 2004: Atmosphere–soil–vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2. Japan Atomic Energy Institute Rep. JAERI-Data/Code 2004-014, 92 pp.

  • Nagai, H., 2005: Incorporation of CO2 exchange processes into a multilayer atmosphere–soil–vegetation model. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 15741592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagai, H., and H. Yamazawa, 1999: Development of a one-dimensional atmosphere–soil–vegetation model, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Rep. 99–024, 88 pp.

  • Olivier, J., 2002: Fog-water harvesting along the west coast of South Africa: A feasibility study. Water SA, 28 , 349360.

  • Peters, K., and R. Eiden, 1992: Modelling the dry deposition velocity of aerosol particles to a spruce forest. Atmos. Environ., 26A , 25552564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ranz, W. E., and W. R. Marshall, 1952: Evaporation from drops, Part II. Chem. Eng. Prog., 48 , 173180.

  • Rebmann, C., and Coauthors, 2004: Carbon budget of a spruce forest ecosystem. Biogeochemistry of Forested Catchments in a Changing Environment, E. Matzner, Ed., Springer-Verlag, 143–159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruijgrok, W., H. Tieben, and P. Eisinga, 1997: The dry deposition of particles to a forest canopy: A comparison of model and experimental results. Atmos. Environ., 31 , 399415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sävijarvi, H., and P. Räisänen, 1998: Longwave optical properties of water clouds and rain. Tellus A, 50 , 111.

  • Schemenauer, R. S., and P. Cereceda, 1991: Fog-water collection in arid coastal locations. Ambio, 20 , 303308.

  • Schemenauer, R. S., and P. Cereceda, 1994: The role of wind in rainwater catchment and fog collection. Water Int., 19 , 7076.

  • Scholl, M. A., S. B. Gingerich, and G. W. Tribble, 2002: The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii. J. Hydrol., 264 , 170184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schulze, E. D., O. L. Lange, and R. Oren, 1989: Forest Decline and Air Pollution: A Study of Spruce. (Picea abies) on Acid Soils. Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 77, Springer-Verlag, 475 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tampieri, F., and C. Tomasi, 1976: Size distribution models of fog and cloud droplets in terms of the modified gamma function. Tellus, 28 , 333347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thalmann, E., R. Burkard, T. Wrzesinsky, W. Eugster, and O. Klemm, 2002: Ion fluxes from fog and rain to an agricultural and a forest ecosystem in Europe. Atmos. Res., 64 , 147158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thorne, P. G., G. M. Lovett, and W. A. Reiners, 1982: Experimental determination of droplet impaction on canopy components of balsam fir. J. Appl. Meteor., 21 , 14131416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Went, F. W., 1955: Fog, mist, dew, and other sources of water. The Yearbook of Agriculture, USDA, 103–109.

  • Yamada, T., 1981: A numerical simulation of nocturnal drainage flow. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 59 , 108122.

  • Yamazawa, H., and H. Nagai, 1997: Development of a one-dimensional atmosphere-bare soil model. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Rep. 97–041, 56 pp.

  • Zhang, L., S. Gong, J. Padro, and L. Barrie, 2001: A size-segregated particle dry deposition scheme for an atmospheric aerosol module. Atmos. Environ., 35 , 549560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 137 71 1
PDF Downloads 108 61 0

Development of a Land Surface Model Including Cloud Water Deposition on Vegetation

View More View Less
  • 1 Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • | 2 University of Münster, Münster, Germany
  • | 3 ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • | 4 University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Restricted access

Abstract

A land surface model including cloud (fog) water deposition on vegetation was developed to better predict the heat and water exchanges between the biosphere and atmosphere. A new scheme to calculate cloud water deposition on vegetation was implemented in this model. High performance of the model was confirmed by comparison of calculated heat and cloud water flux over a forest with measurements. The new model provided a better prediction of measured turbulent and gravitational fluxes of cloud water over the canopy than the commonly used cloud water deposition model. In addition, simple linear relationships between wind speed over the canopy (|U|) and deposition velocity of cloud water (Vdep) were found both in measurements and in the calculations. Numerical experiments using the model were performed to study the influences of two types of leaves (needle and broad leaves) and canopy structure parameters (total leaf area index and canopy height) on Vdep. When the size of broad leaves is small, they can capture larger amounts of cloud water than needle leaves with the same canopy structure. The relationship between aerodynamic and canopy conductances for cloud water at a given total leaf area density (LAD) strongly influenced Vdep. From this, it was found that trees whose LAD ≈ 0.1 m2 m−3 are the most efficient structures for cloud water deposition. A simple expression for the slope of Vdep plotted against LAD obtained from the experiments can be useful for predicting total cloud water deposition to forests on large spatial scales.

Corresponding author address: Genki Katata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan. Email: katata.genki@jaea.go.jp

Abstract

A land surface model including cloud (fog) water deposition on vegetation was developed to better predict the heat and water exchanges between the biosphere and atmosphere. A new scheme to calculate cloud water deposition on vegetation was implemented in this model. High performance of the model was confirmed by comparison of calculated heat and cloud water flux over a forest with measurements. The new model provided a better prediction of measured turbulent and gravitational fluxes of cloud water over the canopy than the commonly used cloud water deposition model. In addition, simple linear relationships between wind speed over the canopy (|U|) and deposition velocity of cloud water (Vdep) were found both in measurements and in the calculations. Numerical experiments using the model were performed to study the influences of two types of leaves (needle and broad leaves) and canopy structure parameters (total leaf area index and canopy height) on Vdep. When the size of broad leaves is small, they can capture larger amounts of cloud water than needle leaves with the same canopy structure. The relationship between aerodynamic and canopy conductances for cloud water at a given total leaf area density (LAD) strongly influenced Vdep. From this, it was found that trees whose LAD ≈ 0.1 m2 m−3 are the most efficient structures for cloud water deposition. A simple expression for the slope of Vdep plotted against LAD obtained from the experiments can be useful for predicting total cloud water deposition to forests on large spatial scales.

Corresponding author address: Genki Katata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan. Email: katata.genki@jaea.go.jp

Save