• Arnfield, A. J., 2003: Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int. J. Climatol., 23 , 126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baklanov, A., P. G. Mestayer, A. Clappier, S. Zilitinkevich, S. Joffre, A. Mahura, and N. W. Nielsen, 2008: Towards improving the simulation of meteorological fields in urban areas through updated/advanced surface fluxes description. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8 , 523543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldocchi, D. D., 2003: Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: Past, present and future. Global Change Biol., 9 , 479492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bélair, S., L. P. Crevier, J. Mailhot, B. Bilodeau, and Y. Delage, 2003a: Operational implementation of the ISBA land surface scheme in the Canadian Regional Weather Forecast Model. Part I: Warm season results. J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 352370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bélair, S., R. Brown, J. Mailhot, B. Bilodeau, and L. P. Crevier, 2003b: Operational implementation of the ISBA land surface scheme in the Canadian Regional Weather Forecast Model. Part II: Cold season results. J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 371386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bélair, S., J. Mailhot, A. Lemonsu, M. Benjamin, F. Chagnon, G. Morneau, and R. Hogue, 2006: The Montréal Urban Snow Experiments (MUSE). International Association for Urban Climate (IAUC) Newsletter, No. 16, 9–10. [Available online at http://www.urban-climate.org/IAUC016.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beyrich, F., and Coauthors, 2006: Area-averaged surface fluxes over the Litfass region based on eddy-covariance measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 121 , 3365. doi:10.1007/s10546-006-9052-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brutsaert, W., 1982: Evaporation into the Atmosphere: Theory, History, and Applications. Reidel, 299 pp.

  • Chen, T. H., and Coauthors, 1997: Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes. J. Climate, 10 , 11941215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Ridder, K., and G. Schayes, 1997: The IAGL land surface model. J. Appl. Meteor., 36 , 167182.

  • Dupont, S., and P. G. Mestayer, 2006: Parameterization of the urban energy budget with the Submesoscale Soil Model (SM2-U). J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45 , 17441765.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dupont, S., T. Otte, and J. K. S. Ching, 2004: Simulation of meteorological fields within and above urban and rural canopies with a mesoscale model (MM5). Bound.-Layer Meteor., 113 , 111158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foken, T., 2008: The energy balance closure problem: An overview. Ecol. Appl., 18 , 13511367.

  • Grimmond, C. S. B., 2006: Progress in measuring and observing the urban atmosphere. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 84 , 322. doi:10.1007/s00704-005-0140-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., and T. M. Oke, 1995: Comparison of heat fluxes from summertime observations in the suburbs of four North American cities. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 873889.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., and T. M. Oke, 1999a: Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 922940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., and T. M. Oke, 1999b: Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 12621292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamdi, R., and G. Schayes, 2007: Validation of an urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 , 45134526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamdi, R., and V. Masson, 2008: Inclusion of a drag approach in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) Scheme: Offline 1D evaluation in a street canyon. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47 , 26272644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanda, M., 2007: Progress in urban meteorology: A review. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85B , 363383.

  • Kanda, M., A. Inagaki, M. O. Letzel, S. Raasch, and T. Watanabe, 2004: LES study of the energy imbalance problem with eddy covariance fluxes. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 110 , 381404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanda, M., M. Kanaga, T. Kawai, R. Moriwaki, and H. Sugawara, 2007: Roughness lengths for momentum and heat derived from outdoor urban scale models. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 10671079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kohsiek, W., C. Liebethal, T. Foken, R. Vogt, S. Oncley, C. Bernhofer, and H. Debruin, 2007: The Energy Balance Experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 123 , 5575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kondo, H., Y. Genchi, Y. Kikegawa, Y. Ohashi, H. Yoshikado, and H. Komiyama, 2005: Development of a multi-layer urban canopy model for the analysis of energy consumption in a big city: Structure of the urban canopy model and its basic performance. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 116 (3) 395421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kusaka, H., H. Kondo, Y. Kikegawa, and F. Kimura, 2001: A simple single-layer urban canopy model for atmospheric models: Comparison with multi-layer and slab models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 101 , 329358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S. H., and S-U. Park, 2008: A vegetated urban canopy model for meteorological and environmental modelling. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 126 , 73102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemonsu, A., C. S. B. Grimmond, and V. Masson, 2004: Modeling the surface energy balance of the core of an old Mediterranean city: Marseille. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 312327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemonsu, A., and Coauthors, 2008: Overview and first results of the Montreal Urban Snow Experiment 2005. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47 , 5975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemonsu, A., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, and S. Leroyer, 2010: Evaluation of the Town Energy Balance model in cold and snowy conditions during the Montreal Urban Snow Experiment 2005. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leroyer, S., I. Calmet, and P. G. Mestayer, 2010: Urban boundary layer simulations of sea-breeze over Marseille during the ESCOMPTE experiment. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 40 , 109122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahrt, L., and D. Vickers, 2004: Bulk formulation of the surface heat flux. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 110 , 357379.

  • Mailhot, J., S. Belair, A. Lemonsu, L. Tong, A. Leroux, N. Benbouta, and R. Hogue, 2006: Urban modeling at the Meteorological Service of Canada. International Association for Urban Climate (IAUC) Newsletter, No. 17, 13–16. [Available online at http://www.urban-climate.org/IAUC017.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martilli, A., A. Clappier, and M. W. Rotach, 2002: An urban surface exchange parameterization for mesoscale models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 104 , 261304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mascart, P., J. Noilhan, and H. Giordani, 1995: A modified parameterization of flux-profile relationship in the surface layer using different roughness length values for heat and momentum. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 72 , 331344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masson, V., 2000: A physically based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 94 , 357397.

  • Masson, V., C. S. B. Grimmond, and T. R. Oke, 2002: Evaluation of the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme with direct measurements from dry districts in two cities. J. Appl. Meteor., 41 , 10111025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mauder, M., C. Liebethal, M. Göckede, J-P. Leps, F. Beyrich, and T. Foken, 2006: Processing and quality control of flux data during LITFASS-2003. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 121 , 6788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mestayer, P. G., and Coauthors, 2005: The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): Set-up and first results. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 114 , 315365. doi:10.1007/s10546-004-9241-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moriwaki, R., and M. Kanda, 2004: Seasonal and diurnal fluxes of radiation, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide over a suburban area. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 17001710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moriwaki, R., and M. Kanda, 2006: Scalar roughness parameters for a suburban area. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84 , 10631071.

  • Noilhan, J., and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 536549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Offerle, B., P. Jonsson, I. Eliasson, and C. S. B. Grimmond, 2005: Urban modification of the surface energy balance in the West African Sahel: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. J. Climate, 18 , 39833995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Offerle, B., C. S. B. Grimmond, K. Fortuniak, K. Klysik, and T. R. Oke, 2006: Temporal variations in heat fluxes over a central European city centre. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 84 , 103115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oke, T. R., 1982: The energetic basis of the urban heat island. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108 , 124.

  • Oke, T. R., 2006: Towards better scientific communication in urban climate. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 84 , (1–3). 179190.

  • Oke, T. R., 2007: Siting and exposure of meteorological instruments at urban sites. Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XVII, C. Borrego and A.-L. Norman, Eds., Springer, 615–632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oke, T. R., R. A. Spronken-Smith, E. Jauregui, and C. S. B. Grimmond, 1999: The energy balance of central Mexico City during the dry season. Atmos. Environ., 33 , (24–25). 39193930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Owen, P. R., and W. R. Thomson, 1963: Heat transfer across rough surfaces. J. Fluid Mech., 15 , 321334.

  • Rotach, M. W., and Coauthors, 2005: BUBBLE–An Urban Boundary Layer Meteorology Project. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 81 , 231261.

  • Roth, M., 2000: Review of atmospheric turbulence over cities. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 941990.

  • Roulet, Y-A., A. Martilli, M. W. Rotach, and A. Clappier, 2005: A validation of an urban surface exchange parameterization for mesoscale models—1D case in a street canyon. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 14841498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmid, H. P., 1997: Experimental design for flux measurements: Matching scales of observations and fluxes. Agric. For. Meteor., 87 , 179200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmid, H. P., H. A. Cleugh, C. S. B. Grimmond, and T. R. Oke, 1991: Spatial variability of energy fluxes in suburban terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 54 , 249276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J., and L. Mahrt, 1995: Determination of surface fluxes from the surface radiative temperature. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 10961106.

  • Trouffleau, D., J. P. Lhomme, B. Monteny, and A. Vidal, 1997: Sensible heat flux and radiometric surface temperature over sparse Sahelian vegetation. I. An experimental analysis of the kB−1 parameter. J. Hydrol., 188–189 , 815838. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03172-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voogt, J. A., and T. R. Oke, 1997: Complete urban surface temperatures. J. Appl. Meteor., 36 , 11171132.

  • Voogt, J. A., and C. S. B. Grimmond, 2000: Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban area. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 16791699.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zilitinkevich, S. S., 1995: Non-local turbulent transport: Pollution dispersion aspects of coherent structure of convective flows. Air Pollution III, H. Power, N. Moussiopoulos, and C. A. Brebbia, Eds., Vol. 1, Air Pollution Theory and Simulation, Computational Mechanics Publications, 53–60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 4 4 3

Modeling the Surface Energy Budget during the Thawing Period of the 2006 Montreal Urban Snow Experiment

View More View Less
  • 1 Atmospheric and Environmental Research Laboratory, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
  • | 2 Meteorological Research Division, Environment Canada, Dorval, Quebec, Canada
  • | 3 Centre National De Recherches Météorologiques, Toulouse, France
  • | 4 Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
Restricted access

Abstract

The Montreal Urban Snow Experiment was dedicated to furthering the understanding of micrometeorological processes involved in the late winter–early spring transition period in a Canadian city. A surface energy budget (SEB) measurement site was installed in a dense residential area of Montreal for several weeks in 2005 and 2006. This paper focuses on the last 6 days of the 2006 experiment (23–28 March 2006), after snowmelt and before vegetation became active, with the objectives of providing a better understanding of physical processes involved during this transition period and examining their impact on the SEB. The Town Energy Balance urban canopy model and the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere force–restore land surface model are used in stand-alone mode and are forced with meteorological data measured at the top of a 20-m AGL instrumented tower. Preliminary results reveal deficiencies in the models’ ability to simulate the surface energy budget partitioning, and in particular show overestimation of the sensible heat flux. Sensitivity studies indicate that a large portion of these problems is related to the latent heat transfer involved in natural soil freeze/thaw processes, which has a significant effect on the surface energy budget in this urban area. It is also found that the SEB in this particular situation is very sensitive to the thermal roughness length used for local energy exchange over the roof and road surfaces.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Sylvie Leroyer, Meteorological Research Branch, Environment Canada, 2121 Trans-Canada Highway, Dorval, QC H9P 1J3, Canada. Email: sylvie.leroyer@ec.gc.ca

Abstract

The Montreal Urban Snow Experiment was dedicated to furthering the understanding of micrometeorological processes involved in the late winter–early spring transition period in a Canadian city. A surface energy budget (SEB) measurement site was installed in a dense residential area of Montreal for several weeks in 2005 and 2006. This paper focuses on the last 6 days of the 2006 experiment (23–28 March 2006), after snowmelt and before vegetation became active, with the objectives of providing a better understanding of physical processes involved during this transition period and examining their impact on the SEB. The Town Energy Balance urban canopy model and the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere force–restore land surface model are used in stand-alone mode and are forced with meteorological data measured at the top of a 20-m AGL instrumented tower. Preliminary results reveal deficiencies in the models’ ability to simulate the surface energy budget partitioning, and in particular show overestimation of the sensible heat flux. Sensitivity studies indicate that a large portion of these problems is related to the latent heat transfer involved in natural soil freeze/thaw processes, which has a significant effect on the surface energy budget in this urban area. It is also found that the SEB in this particular situation is very sensitive to the thermal roughness length used for local energy exchange over the roof and road surfaces.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Sylvie Leroyer, Meteorological Research Branch, Environment Canada, 2121 Trans-Canada Highway, Dorval, QC H9P 1J3, Canada. Email: sylvie.leroyer@ec.gc.ca

Save