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Elevated Ozone Layers over the Seoul Metropolitan Region in Korea: Evidence for Long-Range Ozone Transport from Eastern China and Its Contribution to Surface Concentrations

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  • 1 Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea
  • | 2 Division of Environmental, Civil and Transportation Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea
  • | 3 Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea
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Abstract

Elevated layers of high ozone concentration were observed over the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR) in Korea by ozonesonde measurements during 6–9 June 2003. An analysis of the synoptic-scale meteorological features and backward trajectories revealed that the layers were associated with the long-range transport of ozone from eastern China. Further examination of the long-range transport process responsible for the development of these layers was performed using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. CMAQ demonstrated that the upward mixing of ozone by convective activity in eastern China and subsequent horizontal transport aloft in the periphery of a slow-moving high pressure system led to the development of thick ozone layers over the SMR. Through comparative simulation studies, it was found that the surface ozone levels in the SMR can be significantly enhanced by the vertical down-mixing of ozone from the layer aloft with the growing mixed layer. On average, about 25% of the surface peak concentration in a given area during a high-ozone episode was due to the influence of the ozone layer aloft developed by the long-range transport process.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Yoo-Keun Kim, Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, South Korea. Email: kimyk@pusan.ac.kr

Abstract

Elevated layers of high ozone concentration were observed over the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR) in Korea by ozonesonde measurements during 6–9 June 2003. An analysis of the synoptic-scale meteorological features and backward trajectories revealed that the layers were associated with the long-range transport of ozone from eastern China. Further examination of the long-range transport process responsible for the development of these layers was performed using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. CMAQ demonstrated that the upward mixing of ozone by convective activity in eastern China and subsequent horizontal transport aloft in the periphery of a slow-moving high pressure system led to the development of thick ozone layers over the SMR. Through comparative simulation studies, it was found that the surface ozone levels in the SMR can be significantly enhanced by the vertical down-mixing of ozone from the layer aloft with the growing mixed layer. On average, about 25% of the surface peak concentration in a given area during a high-ozone episode was due to the influence of the ozone layer aloft developed by the long-range transport process.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Yoo-Keun Kim, Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, South Korea. Email: kimyk@pusan.ac.kr

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