Characterization of Precipitating Clouds by Ground-Based Measurements with the Triple-Frequency Polarized Microwave Radiometer ADMIRARI

Alessandro Battaglia Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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Pablo Saavedra Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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Thomas Rose Radiometer Physics GmbH, Meckenheim, Germany

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Clemens Simmer Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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Abstract

A groundbreaking new-concept multiwavelength dual-polarized Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Rain Identification (ADMIRARI) has been built and continuously operated in two field campaigns: the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS) and the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI). The radiometer has 6 channels working in horizontal and vertical polarization at 10.65, 21.0, and 36.5 GHz, and it is completely steerable both in azimuth and in elevation. The instrument is suited to be operated in rainy conditions and is intended for retrieving simultaneously water vapor, rain, and cloud liquid water paths. To this goal the authors implemented a Bayesian retrieval scheme based on many state realizations simulated by the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model that build up a prior probability density function of rainfall profiles. Detailed three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, which account for the presence of nonspherical particles in preferential orientation, simulate the downwelling brightness temperatures and establish the similarity of radiative signatures and thus the probability that a given profile is actually observed. Particular attention is devoted to the sensitivity of the ADMIRARI signal to 3D effects, raindrop size distribution, and axial ratio parameterizations. The polarization and multifrequency signals represent key information to separate the effects introduced by non-Rayleigh scatterers and to separate rainwater (r-LWP) from the cloud water component (c-LWP). Long-term observations demonstrate that observed brightness temperatures and polarization differences can be well interpreted and reproduced by the simulated ones for all three channels simultaneously. Rough estimates of r-LWP derived from collocated observations with a micro rain radar confirm the rain/no rain separation and the variability trend of r-LWP provided by the radiometer-based retrieval algorithm. With this work the authors demonstrate the potential of ADMIRARI to retrieve information about the rain/cloud partitioning for midlatitude precipitation systems; future studies with this instrument will provide crucial information on rain efficiency of clouds for cloud modelers that might lead toward a better characterization of rain processes.

Corresponding author address: Alessandro Battaglia, Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 20, D-53121 Bonn, Germany. Email: batta@uni-bonn.de

Abstract

A groundbreaking new-concept multiwavelength dual-polarized Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Rain Identification (ADMIRARI) has been built and continuously operated in two field campaigns: the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS) and the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI). The radiometer has 6 channels working in horizontal and vertical polarization at 10.65, 21.0, and 36.5 GHz, and it is completely steerable both in azimuth and in elevation. The instrument is suited to be operated in rainy conditions and is intended for retrieving simultaneously water vapor, rain, and cloud liquid water paths. To this goal the authors implemented a Bayesian retrieval scheme based on many state realizations simulated by the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model that build up a prior probability density function of rainfall profiles. Detailed three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, which account for the presence of nonspherical particles in preferential orientation, simulate the downwelling brightness temperatures and establish the similarity of radiative signatures and thus the probability that a given profile is actually observed. Particular attention is devoted to the sensitivity of the ADMIRARI signal to 3D effects, raindrop size distribution, and axial ratio parameterizations. The polarization and multifrequency signals represent key information to separate the effects introduced by non-Rayleigh scatterers and to separate rainwater (r-LWP) from the cloud water component (c-LWP). Long-term observations demonstrate that observed brightness temperatures and polarization differences can be well interpreted and reproduced by the simulated ones for all three channels simultaneously. Rough estimates of r-LWP derived from collocated observations with a micro rain radar confirm the rain/no rain separation and the variability trend of r-LWP provided by the radiometer-based retrieval algorithm. With this work the authors demonstrate the potential of ADMIRARI to retrieve information about the rain/cloud partitioning for midlatitude precipitation systems; future studies with this instrument will provide crucial information on rain efficiency of clouds for cloud modelers that might lead toward a better characterization of rain processes.

Corresponding author address: Alessandro Battaglia, Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 20, D-53121 Bonn, Germany. Email: batta@uni-bonn.de

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