Diagnostics of Climate Model Biases in Summer Temperature and Warm-Season Insolation for the Simulation of Regional Paddy Rice Yield in Japan

Toshichika Iizumi Agro-Meteorology Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan

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Motoki Nishimori Agro-Meteorology Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan

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Masayuki Yokozawa Agro-Meteorology Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan

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Abstract

This study quantifies the ranges of climate model biases in surface air temperature for July and August (summer temperature) and daily total insolation for May–October (warm-season insolation) that can give simulated regional paddy rice yields with a bias within ±2.5% of the 20-yr mean observed regional yield. The following four sets of three meteorological elements (daily maximum and minimum temperatures and daily total insolation) from daily climate model outputs were used as meteorological inputs for a large-scale crop model for irrigated paddy rice: 1) raw climate model outputs of all meteorological elements, 2) bias-corrected temperatures and raw climate model outputs of insolation, 3) bias-corrected insolation and raw climate model outputs of temperatures, and 4) bias-corrected climate model outputs of all meteorological elements. These meteorological inputs were sourced from seven coupled general circulation models, one regional climate model, and one reanalysis dataset. Crop model simulations with artificially biased meteorological inputs were also used. By using the approximation formula derived from these crop model simulation results and the Monte Carlo simulation technique, it was found that climate model outputs with biases within ±0.6°C and ±3% for summer temperature and warm-season insolation, respectively, could result in a simulated regional paddy rice yield with a bias within ±2.5% of the 20-yr mean observed regional yield. The simulated regional yield was less biased not only when the biases of two meteorological inputs were small but also when the cold or warm bias of summer temperature and the overestimation of warm-season insolation were balanced through the crop model processes. The methodology presented here will lead to a better and more comprehensive understanding of the nature of error propagation from a climate model to an application model and will facilitate the selection of climate models suitable for specific applications.

Corresponding author address: Toshichika Iizumi, Agro-Meteorology Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, Japan. Email: iizumit@affrc.go.jp

Abstract

This study quantifies the ranges of climate model biases in surface air temperature for July and August (summer temperature) and daily total insolation for May–October (warm-season insolation) that can give simulated regional paddy rice yields with a bias within ±2.5% of the 20-yr mean observed regional yield. The following four sets of three meteorological elements (daily maximum and minimum temperatures and daily total insolation) from daily climate model outputs were used as meteorological inputs for a large-scale crop model for irrigated paddy rice: 1) raw climate model outputs of all meteorological elements, 2) bias-corrected temperatures and raw climate model outputs of insolation, 3) bias-corrected insolation and raw climate model outputs of temperatures, and 4) bias-corrected climate model outputs of all meteorological elements. These meteorological inputs were sourced from seven coupled general circulation models, one regional climate model, and one reanalysis dataset. Crop model simulations with artificially biased meteorological inputs were also used. By using the approximation formula derived from these crop model simulation results and the Monte Carlo simulation technique, it was found that climate model outputs with biases within ±0.6°C and ±3% for summer temperature and warm-season insolation, respectively, could result in a simulated regional paddy rice yield with a bias within ±2.5% of the 20-yr mean observed regional yield. The simulated regional yield was less biased not only when the biases of two meteorological inputs were small but also when the cold or warm bias of summer temperature and the overestimation of warm-season insolation were balanced through the crop model processes. The methodology presented here will lead to a better and more comprehensive understanding of the nature of error propagation from a climate model to an application model and will facilitate the selection of climate models suitable for specific applications.

Corresponding author address: Toshichika Iizumi, Agro-Meteorology Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, Japan. Email: iizumit@affrc.go.jp

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