• Benjamini, Y., and Y. Hochberg, 1995: Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J. Roy. Stat. Soc., 57B , 289300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonsal, B. R., X. Zhang, L. A. Vincent, and W. D. Hogg, 2001: Characteristics of daily and extreme temperatures over Canada. J. Climate, 14 , 19591976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, B., X. Y. Gu, and Q. L. Miao, 2006: Characteristics in the variation of temperature over the Yangtze River valley over last 50 years (in Chinese). Resour. Environ. Yangtze Basin, 15 , 531536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., and X. Dai, 1994: Temperature variation in China during the last 100 years (in Chinese). Meteor. Mon., 20 , 1926.

  • Easterling, D. R., G. A. Meehl, C. Parmesan, S. A. Changnon, T. R. Karl, and L. O. Mearns, 2000: Climate extremes: Observations, modeling, and impacts. Science, 289 , 20682074.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frich, P., L. V. Alexander, P. Della-Marta, B. Gleason, M. Haylock, A. M. G. Klein Tank, and T. Peterson, 2002: Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the 20th century. Climate Res., 19 , 193212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaffen, D. J., and R. J. Ross, 1998: Increased summertime heat stress in the U.S. Nature, 396 , 529530.

  • Huang, R., Z. Zhang, G. Huang, and B. Ren, 1998: Characteristics of the water vapor transport in East Asian Monsoon Region and its difference from that in South Asian Monsoon Region in summer (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 22 , 460469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Karl, T. R., and R. W. Knight, 1997: The 1995 Chicago heat wave: How likely is a recurrence? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 11071119.

  • Karl, T. R., and D. R. Easterling, 1999: Climate extremes: Selected review and future research directions. Climatic Change, 42 , 309325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karl, T. R., N. Nicholls, and A. Ghazi, 1999: CLIVAR/GCOS/WMO workshop on indices and indicators for climate extremes: Workshop summary. Climatic Change, 42 , 37.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kunkel, K. E., S. A. Changnon, B. C. Reinke, and R. W. Arritt, 1996: The July 1995 heat wave in the Midwest: A climatic perspective and critical weather factors. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 15071518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kunkel, K. E., R. A. Pielke, and S. A. Changnon, 1999: Temporal fluctuation in weather and climate extremes that cause economic and human health impacts: A review. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 10771098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kyselý, J., J. Kalvová, and V. Květon, 2000: Heat waves in the south Moravian region during the period 1961–1995. Stud. Geophys. Geod., 44 , 5772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Q., X. Liu, H. Zhang, T. Peterson, and D. Easterling, 2004: Detecting and adjusting temporal inhomogeneity in Chinese mean surface air temperature data. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21 , 260268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., and Q. Li, 2003: Research of the inhomogeneity test of climatological data series in China. Acta Meteor. Sin., 17 , 492502.

  • Manton, M. J., and Coauthors, 2001: Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific: 1961–1998. Int. J. Climatol., 21 , 269284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meehl, G. A., C. Tebaldi, G. Walton, D. Easterling, and L. McDaniel, 2009: Relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36 , L23701. doi:10.1029/2009GL040736.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nasrallah, H. A., E. Nieplova, and E. Ramadan, 2004: Warm season extreme temperature events in Kuwait. J. Arid Environ., 56 , 357371.

  • Ren, G., M. Xu, Z. Chu, J. Guo, Q. Li, X. Liu, and Y. Wang, 2005: Changes of surface air temperature in China during 1951–2004 (in Chinese). Climatic Environ. Res., 10 , 717727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salinger, M. J., and G. M. Griffiths, 2001: Trends in New Zealand daily temperature and rainfall extremes. Int. J. Climatol., 21 , 14371452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shi, Y., Y. Shen, and R. Hu, 2002: Preliminary study on signal, impact and foreground of climatic shift from warm-dry to warm-humid in Northwest China (in Chinese). J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 24 , 219226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steadman, R. G., 1984: A universal scale of apparent temperature. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23 , 16741687.

  • Tang, H., P. Zhai, and Z. Wang, 2005: On change in mean maximum temperature, minimum temperature and diurnal range in China during 1951–2002 (in Chinese). Climatic Environ. Res., 10 , 728735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., and Coauthors, 2007: Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 237–336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ventura, V., C. J. Paciorek, and J. S. Risbey, 2004: Controlling the proportion of falsely rejected hypotheses when conducting multiple tests with climatological data. J. Climate, 17 , 43434356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J. X. L., and D. J. Gaffen, 2001: Late-twentieth-century climatology and trends of surface humidity and temperature in China. J. Climate, 14 , 28332845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., D. Ye, and J. Sun, 2007: A review on 2006 climate over China (in Chinese). Adv. Climate Change Res., 3 , 111113.

  • Wang, M., 1996: Main Population Data of China by County. China Population Publishing House, 307 pp.

  • WMO, cited. 2006: WMO statement on the status of the global climate in 2006. [Available online at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/wcrp/pdf/pdf/press_release_768.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, X., L. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Miao, and S. Tao, 2004: Moisture transport source/sink structure of the Meiyu rain belt along the Yangtze River valley. Chin. Sci. Bull., 49 , 181188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, X., C. Lu, X. Shi, and Y. Ding, 2010: Large-scale topography of China: A factor for the seasonal progression of the Meiyu rainband? J. Geophys. Res., 115 , D02110. doi:10.1029/2009JD012444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhai, P., and F. Ren, 1999: On changes of China’s maximum and minimum temperatures in 1951–1990. Acta Meteor. Sin., 13 , 278290.

  • Zhai, P., and X. Pan, 2003: Change in extreme temperature and precipitation over northern China during the second half of the 20th century (in Chinese). Acta Geogr. Sin., 58 , (S1). 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S., S. Wang, Y. Zhang, D. Zhang, and Y. Song, 2004a: The climate character of high temperature and the prediction in the large cities of east of China (in Chinese). J. Trop. Meteor., 20 , 750760.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S., Y. Song, D. Zhang, and S. Wang, 2004b: The climatic characteristics of high temperature and the assessment method in the large cities of northern China (in Chinese). Acta Geogr. Sin., 59 , 383390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S., H. Zhang, X. Xu, D. Zhang, Y. Liao, and Y. Song, 2005: Climatic character and cause analysis of summer high temperature in main cities of east China (in Chinese). Plateau Meteor., 24 , 829835.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 4 4 4
PDF Downloads 3 3 3

Variability and Trends of High Temperature, High Humidity, and Sultry Weather in the Warm Season in China during the Period 1961–2004

View More View Less
  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 2 NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, and Colorado State University, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 3 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
Restricted access

Abstract

Using the daily maximum air temperature and mean humidity observations at 394 surface weather stations across China, the changes in the annual number of days of high temperature weather (HTW), high humidity weather (HHW), and sultry weather (STW) in China over the period 1961–2004 are studied. The results indicate that there were considerable spatial differences and temporal variability of HTW, HHW, and STW across China. Under a climatic mean condition, a notable feature is that southeastern China is the region of collocation of high values of the annual number of days of HTW, HHW, and STW, as well as the region of the most significant variabilities of these parameters. About 55% of the stations in China have increasing trends of the annual number of days of HTW. Most stations in China show decreasing trends of the annual number of days of HHW and are mainly located either in the area south of 30°N or in northern and northeastern China. The stations with increasing trends of the annual number of days of STW are mainly located in northern China, while the stations that have decreasing trends are primarily located in southern China. The analysis results suggest that the variability of the annual number of days of STW corresponds mainly to HTW, and less to HHW. The change in the East Asian monsoon may be responsible for the changes of these statistics in extreme weather in China.

Corresponding author address: Chungu Lu, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305. Email: chungu.lu@noaa.gov

Abstract

Using the daily maximum air temperature and mean humidity observations at 394 surface weather stations across China, the changes in the annual number of days of high temperature weather (HTW), high humidity weather (HHW), and sultry weather (STW) in China over the period 1961–2004 are studied. The results indicate that there were considerable spatial differences and temporal variability of HTW, HHW, and STW across China. Under a climatic mean condition, a notable feature is that southeastern China is the region of collocation of high values of the annual number of days of HTW, HHW, and STW, as well as the region of the most significant variabilities of these parameters. About 55% of the stations in China have increasing trends of the annual number of days of HTW. Most stations in China show decreasing trends of the annual number of days of HHW and are mainly located either in the area south of 30°N or in northern and northeastern China. The stations with increasing trends of the annual number of days of STW are mainly located in northern China, while the stations that have decreasing trends are primarily located in southern China. The analysis results suggest that the variability of the annual number of days of STW corresponds mainly to HTW, and less to HHW. The change in the East Asian monsoon may be responsible for the changes of these statistics in extreme weather in China.

Corresponding author address: Chungu Lu, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305. Email: chungu.lu@noaa.gov

Save