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Attenuation and Differential Attenuation of 5-cm-Wavelength Radiation in Melting Hail

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  • 1 Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
  • | 2 Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, and NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 3 NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 4 Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
  • | 5 Atmospheric Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
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Abstract

Presented are quantitative estimates of specific attenuation and specific differential attenuation of 5-cm-wavelength radiation (C band) obtained by comparison with measurements at 10-cm wavelength (S band), which are much less affected by attenuation. The data originated from two almost-collocated radars in central Oklahoma. To avoid biases in estimates, the slopes with respect to range of differences in reflectivities and differential reflectivities are assumed to represent the specific attenuations. Observations on a day with no reports of hail on the ground and on a day with large hail are contrasted. A simple one-dimensional model of melting hail is used to qualify these observations. Examples of volumetric fields of the polarimetric variables obtained at the two wavelengths are presented to illustrate that much can be learned about size, orientation, and phase of hydrometeors over volumes that play a role in precipitation formation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. L. Borowska, Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 20, 53121 Bonn, Germany. Email: borowska@uni-bonn.de

Abstract

Presented are quantitative estimates of specific attenuation and specific differential attenuation of 5-cm-wavelength radiation (C band) obtained by comparison with measurements at 10-cm wavelength (S band), which are much less affected by attenuation. The data originated from two almost-collocated radars in central Oklahoma. To avoid biases in estimates, the slopes with respect to range of differences in reflectivities and differential reflectivities are assumed to represent the specific attenuations. Observations on a day with no reports of hail on the ground and on a day with large hail are contrasted. A simple one-dimensional model of melting hail is used to qualify these observations. Examples of volumetric fields of the polarimetric variables obtained at the two wavelengths are presented to illustrate that much can be learned about size, orientation, and phase of hydrometeors over volumes that play a role in precipitation formation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. L. Borowska, Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 20, 53121 Bonn, Germany. Email: borowska@uni-bonn.de

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