Influence of Indian Summer Monsoon on Aerosol Loading in East Asia

Xiaodong Liu SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an, China

Search for other papers by Xiaodong Liu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Libin Yan SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an, China

Search for other papers by Libin Yan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ping Yang Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

Search for other papers by Ping Yang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zhi-Yong Yin Department of Marine Science and Environmental Studies, University of San Diego, San Diego, California

Search for other papers by Zhi-Yong Yin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Gerald R. North Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

Search for other papers by Gerald R. North in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

The spatial and temporal variations of aerosol loading over eastern Asia specified in terms of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the 550-nm wavelength during July are examined in conjunction with the intensity of the Indian summer monsoon. AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, gridded reanalyses, and ground-based measurements are used in the analysis. Two contrasting years, 2002 and 2003, which represent weak and active Indian summer monsoon events, respectively, are selected for the study, with a focus on an eastern Asian southern subregion (SR; 23°–32°N, 105°–120°E) and an eastern Asian northern subregion (NR; 35°–44°N, 115°–130°E). It is shown that the interannual variation of July mean wind intensity is a major factor in regulating the midsummer spatial pattern of aerosols over eastern Asia when the Indian monsoon index is anomalously large. The AOD anomalies in the NR and SR are positive and negative, respectively, during an active monsoon year, whereas the opposite is observed during a weak monsoon year. The variation patterns of less cloudy-day visibility, observed at four meteorological stations in the SR and NR subregions, also show spatial–temporal aerosol variability evident in the MODIS AOD data. Relative to the case of a weak monsoon year, meridional winds and convection are stronger and more clouds and precipitation are observed in the NR subregion during the active monsoon year. The opposite pattern is observed in the SR subregion. The spatial–temporal variation pattern of aerosols over eastern Asia illustrates the nonnegligible role of transport and dispersal mechanisms associated with the Indian summer monsoon in the region.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Ping Yang, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843. Email: pyang@tamu.edu

Abstract

The spatial and temporal variations of aerosol loading over eastern Asia specified in terms of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the 550-nm wavelength during July are examined in conjunction with the intensity of the Indian summer monsoon. AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, gridded reanalyses, and ground-based measurements are used in the analysis. Two contrasting years, 2002 and 2003, which represent weak and active Indian summer monsoon events, respectively, are selected for the study, with a focus on an eastern Asian southern subregion (SR; 23°–32°N, 105°–120°E) and an eastern Asian northern subregion (NR; 35°–44°N, 115°–130°E). It is shown that the interannual variation of July mean wind intensity is a major factor in regulating the midsummer spatial pattern of aerosols over eastern Asia when the Indian monsoon index is anomalously large. The AOD anomalies in the NR and SR are positive and negative, respectively, during an active monsoon year, whereas the opposite is observed during a weak monsoon year. The variation patterns of less cloudy-day visibility, observed at four meteorological stations in the SR and NR subregions, also show spatial–temporal aerosol variability evident in the MODIS AOD data. Relative to the case of a weak monsoon year, meridional winds and convection are stronger and more clouds and precipitation are observed in the NR subregion during the active monsoon year. The opposite pattern is observed in the SR subregion. The spatial–temporal variation pattern of aerosols over eastern Asia illustrates the nonnegligible role of transport and dispersal mechanisms associated with the Indian summer monsoon in the region.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Ping Yang, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843. Email: pyang@tamu.edu

Save
  • Bao, Z., C. Zhu, R. Hulugalla, J. Gu, and G. Di, 2008: Spatial and temporal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over east Asia and their association with wind fields. Meteor. Appl., 15 , 455463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, T. T., H. Wang, Y. F. Xu, H. Y. Li, and L. Q. Tian, 2006: Climatology of aerosol optical properties in northern China. Atmos. Environ., 40 , 14951509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christopher, S. A., and T. Jones, 2007: Satellite-based assessment of cloud-free net radiative effect of dust aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L02810. doi:10.1029/2006GL027783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christopher, S. A., P. Gupta, J. Haywood, and G. Greed, 2008: Aerosol optical thicknesses over North Africa: 1. Development of a product for model validation using Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Aerosol Robotic Network. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D00C04. doi:10.1029/2007JD009446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chylek, P., B. G. Henderson, and G. Lesins, 2005: Aerosol optical depth retrieval over the NASA Stennis Space Center: MTI, MODIS, and AERONET. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 43 , 19781983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chylek, P., and Coauthors, 2006: Aerosol indirect effect over the Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L06806. doi:10.1029/2005GL025397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corrigan, C. E., V. Ramanathan, and J. J. Schauer, 2006: Impact of monsoon transitions on the physical and optical properties of aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D18208. doi:10.1029/2005JD006370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eck, T. F., and Coauthors, 2005: Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in central eastern Asia and aerosol transport to the tropical mid-Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D06202. doi:10.1029/2004JD005274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fasullo, J., 2005: Atmospheric hydrology of the anomalous 2002 Indian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 29963014.

  • Huebert, B. J., T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, 2003: An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 8633. doi:10.1029/2003JD003550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahn, R., P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. Diner, 1998: Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 3219532213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahn, R., B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, 2005: Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D10S04. doi:10.1029/2004JD004706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S.-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaufman, Y. J., A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B. C. Gao, R. R. Li, and L. Flynn, 1997: The MODIS 2.1-μm channel-correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 35 , 12861298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaufman, Y. J., D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, 2002: A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system. Nature, 419 , 215223.

  • Khole, M., 2009: Meteorological conditions associated with very sluggish advance of Indian summer monsoon in 2002. Mausam (New Delhi), 60 , 5160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S. W., S. C. Yoon, J. Kim, and S. Y. Kim, 2007: Seasonal and monthly variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from multi-year MODIS, lidar, and AERONET sun/sky radiometer measurements. Atmos. Environ., 41 , 16341651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiran, R. V., M. Rajeevan, S. V. B. Rao, and N. P. Rao, 2009: Analysis of variations of cloud and aerosol properties associated with active and break spells of Indian summer monsoon using MODIS data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36 , L09706. doi:10.1029/2008GL037135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krüger, O., and H. Graßl, 2004: Albedo reduction by absorbing aerosols over China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 , L02108. doi:10.1029/2003GL019111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K.-M., and K.-M. Kim, 2006: Observational relationships between aerosol and Asian monsoon rainfall, and circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L21810. doi:10.1029/2006GL027546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K.-M., and Coauthors, 2008: The Joint Aerosol–Monsoon Experiment: A new challenge for monsoon climate research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89 , 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levy, R. C., L. A. Remer, S. Mattoo, E. F. Vermote, and Y. J. Kaufman, 2007: Second-generation operational algorithm: Retrieval of aerosol properties over land from inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer spectral reflectance. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D13211. doi:10.1029/2006JD007811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, F., and V. Ramanathan, 2002: Winter to summer monsoon variation of aerosol optical depth over the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 107 , 4284. doi:10.1029/2001JD000949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Z., 2004: Aerosol and climate: A perspective over east Asia. Observation, Theory and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability, X. Zhu, X. F. Li and S. T. Zhou, Eds., World Scientific, 501–525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Z., F. Niu, K. H. Lee, J. Y. Xin, W. M. Hao, B. Nordgren, Y. S. Wang, and P. C. Wang, 2007: Validation and understanding of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol products (C5) using ground-based measurements from the handheld sun photometer network in China. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D22S07. doi:10.1029/2007JD008479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liebmann, B., and C. A. Smith, 1996: Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 12751277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Y. Y., and Y. H. Ding, 2008: Analysis and numerical simulations of the teleconnection between Indian summer monsoon and precipitation in north China. Acta Meteor. Sin., 22 , 489501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y. F., D. R. Lu, X. J. Zhou, W. L. Li, and Q. He, 2001: Characteristics of the spatial distribution and yearly variation of aerosol optical depth over China in last 30 years. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 1450114513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menon, S., J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo, 2002: Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science, 297 , 22502253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mi, W., Z. Q. Li, X. G. Xia, B. Holben, R. Levy, F. S. Zhao, H. B. Chen, and M. Cribb, 2007: Evaluation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol products at two Aerosol Robotic Network stations in China. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D22S08. doi:10.1029/2007JD008474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mishchenko, M. I., and Coauthors, 2003: Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: Effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 79/80 , 953972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis, 2007: Long-term satellite record reveals likely recent aerosol trend. Science, 315 , 1543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moorthy, K. K., S. K. Satheesh, S. S. Babu, and C. B. S. Dutt, 2008: Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB): An overview. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 117 , 243262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nair, S. K., K. Rajeev, and K. Parameswaran, 2003: Wintertime regional aerosol distribution and the influence of continental transport over the Indian Ocean. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 65 , 149165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nair, V. S., S. S. Babu, and K. K. Moorthy, 2008: Aerosol characteristics in the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB: Spatial distribution, latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D15208. doi:10.1029/2008JD009823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Penner, J. E., and Coauthors, 2001: Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, J. T. Houghton et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 289–348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Platnick, S., M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey, 2003: The MODIS cloud products: Algorithms and examples from Terra. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41 , 459473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porch, W., P. Chyleka, M. Dubeya, and S. Massie, 2007: Trends in aerosol optical depth for cities in India. Atmos. Environ., 41 , 75247532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qian, Y., W. Wang, L. R. Leung, and D. P. Kaiser, 2007: Variability of solar radiation under cloud-free skies in China: The role of aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L12804. doi:10.1029/2006GL028800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rahul, P. R. C., P. S. Salvekar, and P. C. S. Devara, 2008: Aerosol optical depth variability over Arabian Sea during drought and normal years of Indian monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L22812. doi:10.1029/2008GL035573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rajeev, K., V. Ramanathan, and J. Meywerk, 2000: Regional aerosol distribution and its long-range transport over the Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 20292043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramachandran, S., and R. Cherian, 2008: Regional and seasonal variations in aerosol optical characteristics and their frequency distributions over India during 2001–2005. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D08207. doi:10.1029/2007JD008560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramanathan, V., and Coauthors, 2001a: Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated assessment of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 2837128398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramanathan, V., P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, 2001b: Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science, 294 , 21192124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramanathan, V., and Coauthors, 2005: Atmospheric brown clouds: Impact on south Asian climate and hydrologic cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102 , 53265333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Remer, L. A., and Coauthors, 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 947973.

  • Remer, L. A., and Coauthors, 2008: Global aerosol climatology from the MODIS satellite sensors. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D14S07. doi:10.1029/2007JD009661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satheesh, S. K., K. K. Moorthy, S. S. Babu, V. Vinoj, and C. B. S. Dutt, 2008: Climate implications of large warming by elevated aerosol over India. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L19809. doi:10.1029/2008GL034944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schuster, G. L., O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, 2006: Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D07207. doi:10.1029/2005JD006328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanré, D., Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, and S. Mattoo, 1997: Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 1697116988.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., 2006: The Asian Monsoon. Springer and Praxis, 787 pp.

  • Wang, B., and Z. Fan, 1999: Choice of south Asian summer monsoon indices. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 629638.

  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and K.-M. Lau, 2001: Interannual variability of Asian summer monsoon: Contrast between the Indian and western North Pacific–east Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 14 , 40734090.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, K. C., R. E. Dickinson, and S. L. Liang, 2009: Clear sky visibility has decreased over land globally from 1973 to 2007. Science, 323 , 14681470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L. L., J. Y. Xin, Y. S. Wang, Z. Q. Li, G. R. Liu, and J. Li, 2007: Evaluation of the MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over different ecosystems in China during EAST-AIRE. Atmos. Environ., 41 , 71387149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xia, X. A., H. B. Chen, and P. C. Wang, 2004: Validation of MODIS aerosol retrievals and evaluation of potential cloud contamination in east Asia. J. Environ. Sci. (China), 16 , 832837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., and Z. Sun, 2010: Comparison of MODIS and MISR aerosol optical thickness over east-central China. Sci. Meteor. Sin., 3 , 48254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 487 170 13
PDF Downloads 335 108 17