• Albertson, J. D., M. B. Parlange, G. Kiely, and W. E. Eichinger, 1997: The average dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in the neutral and unstable atmospheric surface layer. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 13 42313 432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batchelor, G. K., 1959: The Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence. Cambridge University Press, 197 pp.

  • Berger, B. W., K. J. Davis, and C. Yi, 2001: Long-term carbon dioxide fluxes from a very tall tower in a northern forest: Flux measurements methodology. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18, 529542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biltoft, C. A., 2001: Some thoughts on local isotropy and the lateral to longitudinal velocity spectrum ratio. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 100, 393404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Champagne, F. H., 1978: The finescale structure of the turbulent velocity field. J. Fluid Mech., 86, 67108.

  • Champagne, F. H., C. A. Friehe, J. C. LaRue, and J. C. Wyngaard, 1977: Flux measurements, flux estimation techniques, and fine scale turbulence measurements in the unstable surface layer over land. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 515530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Wekker, S. F. J., and S. D. Mayor, 2009: Observations of atmospheric structure and dynamics in the Owens Valley of California with a ground-based, eye-safe, scanning aerosol lidar. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 14831499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doyle, J. D., and D. R. Durran, 2007: Rotor and sub-rotor dynamics in the lee of three-dimensional terrain. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 42024221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finnigan, J. J., R. Clement, Y. Malhi, R. Leuning, and H. A. Cleugh, 2003: A re-evaluation of long-term flux measurement techniques. Part 1: Averaging and coordinate rotation. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 107, 393404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frech, M., 2007: Estimating the turbulent energy dissipation rate in an airport environment. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 123, 148.

  • Goodman, L., E. R. Levine, and R. G. Lueck, 2006: On measuring the terms on the turbulent kinetic energy budget from an AUV. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 23, 977990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grubišić, V., and M. Xiao, 2006: Climatology of westerly wind events in the lee of the Sierra Nevada. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Mountain Meteorology, Santa Fe, NM, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P2.8. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/114755.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grubišić, V., and B. J. Billings, 2007: The intense lee-wave rotor event of Sierra Rotors IOP 8. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 41784201.

  • Grubišić, V., and Coauthors, 2008: The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment: A field campaign overview including observational highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 15131533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaimal, J. C., and J. J. Finnigan, 1994: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurements. Oxford University Press, 275 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaimal, J. C., Y. Izumi, and O. R. Cote, 1972: Spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 98, 563589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaimal, J. C., D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, S. J. Caughey, and C. J. Readings, 1976: Turbulence structure in the convective boundary. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 21522169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, X., W. Massman, and B. Law, 2004: Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis. Kluwer Academic, 250 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1974: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 17911806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metzger, M., and H. Holmes, 2008: Time scales in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 126, 2950.

  • Oncley, S. P., C. A. Friehe, J. A. Businger, E. C. Itsweire, J. C. LaRue, and S. S. Chang, 1996: Surface layer fluxes, profiles and turbulence measurements over uniform terrain under near-neutral conditions. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 10291044.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piper, M., and J. K. Lundquist, 2004: Surface layer turbulence measurements during a frontal passage. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 17681780.

  • Rotach, M. W., and D. Zardi, 2007: On the boundary-layer structure over highly complex terrain: Key findings from MAP. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 937948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotach, M. W., and Coauthors, 2004: Turbulence structure and exchange processes in an Alpine valley: The Riviera project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 13671385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sakai, R. K., D. R. Fitzjarrald, and K. E. Moore, 2001: Importance of low-frequency contributions to eddy fluxes observed over rough surfaces. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 21782192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, R. A., and S. P. Oncley, 2001: Acceleration intermittency and enhanced collision kernels in turbulent clouds. Atmos. Res., 59–60, 7787.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siebert, H., K. Lehmann, and M. Wendisch, 2006: Observations of small-scale turbulence and energy dissipation rates in the cloudy boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 14511466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stensrud, D., 2007: Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models. Cambridge University Press, 478 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.

  • Tennekes, H., and J. Lumley, 1972: A First Course in Turbulence. MIT Press, 300 pp.

  • Večenaj, Ž., D. Belušić, and B. Grisogono, 2010: Characteristics of the near-surface turbulence during a bora event. Ann. Geophys., 28, 155163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vickers, D., and L. Mahrt, 2003: The cospectral gap and turbulent flux calculations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 20, 660672.

  • Weigel, A. P., and M. W. Rotach, 2004: Flow structure and turbulence characteristics of the daytime atmosphere in a steep and narrow Alpine valley. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 26052627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyngaard, J. C., and O. R. Cote, 1971: The budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance in the surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 190201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 377 350 0
PDF Downloads 77 57 0

Near-Surface Characteristics of the Turbulence Structure during a Mountain-Wave Event

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  • | 2 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
  • | 3 Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Restricted access

Abstract

A case study of mountain-wave-induced turbulence observed during the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) in Owens Valley, California, is presented. During this case study, large spatial and temporal variability in aerosol backscatter associated with mountain-wave activity was observed in the valley atmosphere by an aerosol lidar. The corresponding along- and cross-valley turbulence structure was investigated using data collected by three 30-m flux towers equipped with six levels of ultrasonic anemometers. Time series of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) show higher levels of TKE on the sloping western part of the valley when compared with the valley center. The magnitude of the TKE is highly dependent on the averaging time on the western slope, however, indicating that mesoscale transport associated with mountain-wave activity is important here. Analysis of the TKE budget shows that in the central parts of the valley mechanical production of turbulence dominates and is balanced by turbulent dissipation, whereas advective effects appear to play a dominant role over the western slope. In agreement with the aerosol backscatter observations, spatial variability of a turbulent-length-scale parameter suggests the presence of larger turbulent eddies over the western slope than along the valley center. The data and findings from this case study can be used to evaluate the performance of turbulence parameterization schemes in mountainous terrain.

Corresponding author address: Željko Večenaj, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Geophysics, Horvatovac 95, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. E-mail: zvecenaj@gfz.hr

This article is included in the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-Rex) special collection.

Abstract

A case study of mountain-wave-induced turbulence observed during the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) in Owens Valley, California, is presented. During this case study, large spatial and temporal variability in aerosol backscatter associated with mountain-wave activity was observed in the valley atmosphere by an aerosol lidar. The corresponding along- and cross-valley turbulence structure was investigated using data collected by three 30-m flux towers equipped with six levels of ultrasonic anemometers. Time series of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) show higher levels of TKE on the sloping western part of the valley when compared with the valley center. The magnitude of the TKE is highly dependent on the averaging time on the western slope, however, indicating that mesoscale transport associated with mountain-wave activity is important here. Analysis of the TKE budget shows that in the central parts of the valley mechanical production of turbulence dominates and is balanced by turbulent dissipation, whereas advective effects appear to play a dominant role over the western slope. In agreement with the aerosol backscatter observations, spatial variability of a turbulent-length-scale parameter suggests the presence of larger turbulent eddies over the western slope than along the valley center. The data and findings from this case study can be used to evaluate the performance of turbulence parameterization schemes in mountainous terrain.

Corresponding author address: Željko Večenaj, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Geophysics, Horvatovac 95, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. E-mail: zvecenaj@gfz.hr

This article is included in the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-Rex) special collection.

Save