• Allwine, K. J., , and J. E. Flaherty, 2006: Joint Urban 2003: Study overview and instrument locations. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Rep. PNNL-15967, 92 pp. [Available online at http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-15967.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allwine, K. J., , M. J. Leach, , L. W. Stockham, , J. S. Shinn, , R. P. Hosker, , J. F. Bowers, , and J. C. Pace, 2004: Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/74349.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnfield, A. J., 2003: Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batchvarova, E., , and S.-E. Gryning, 1991: Applied model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 56, 261274.

  • Beljaars, A. C. M., , and A. A. M. Holtslag, 1991: Flux parameterization over land surfaces for atmospheric models. J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 327341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Britter, R. E., , and S. R. Hanna, 2003: Flow and dispersion in urban areas. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 35, 469496.

  • Cimorelli, A. J., and Coauthors, 2004: AERMOD: Description of model formulation. U.S. EPA Rep. EPA-454/R-03-004, 91 pp. [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/scram/7thconf/aermod/aermod_mfd.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cimorelli, A. J., and Coauthors, 2005: AERMOD: A dispersion model for industrial source applications. Part I: General model formulation and boundary layer characterization. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 682693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gouveia, F. J., , M. J. Leach, , and J. H. Shinn, 2004: Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.4. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/71499.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., , and T. R. Oke, 1999: Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 922940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., , and T. R. Oke, 2002: Turbulent heat fluxes in urban areas: Observations and a local-scale urban meteorological parameterization scheme (LUMPS). J. Appl. Meteor., 41, 792810.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., , H. B. Su, , B. Offerle, , B. Crawford, , S. Scott, , S. Zhong, , and C. Clements, 2004: Variability of sensible heat fluxes in a suburban area of Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Paper J7.2. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/67542.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., and Coauthors, 2010: The International Urban Energy Balance Models Comparison Project: First results from Phase I. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49 ,12681292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanna, S. R., , and R. J. Paine, 1989: Hybrid Plume Dispersion Model (HPDM) development and evaluation. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 206224.

  • Hanna, S. R., , and J. C. Chang, 1992: Boundary layer parameterizations for applied dispersion modeling over urban areas. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 58, 229259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanna, S. R., , and Y. Zhou, 2009: Space and time variations in turbulence during the Manhattan Midtown 2005 field experiment. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 22952304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanna, S. R., , L. L. Schulman, , R. J. Paine, , J. E. Pleim, , and M. Baer, 1985: Development and evaluation of the Offshore and Coastal Diffusion Model. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 35, 10391047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanna, S. R., , J. White, , and Y. Zhou, 2007: Observed winds, turbulence, and dispersion in built-up downtown areas in Oklahoma City and Manhattan. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 125, 441468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holeman, J. E., , M. Princevac, , S. Grossman-Clarke, , S. M. Lee, , H. J. S. Fernando, , and R. Calhoun, 2004: Joint Urban 2003 surface energy budget measurements and analysis. Proc. 21st Int. Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland, 2 pp. [Available online at http://fluid.ippt.gov.pl/ictam04/text/sessions/docs/FM9/12738/FM9_12738_new.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holtslag, A. A. M., , and A. P. VanUlden, 1983: A simple scheme for daytime estimates of the surface fluxes from routine weather data. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 517529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horst, T. W., 1999: The footprint for estimation of atmospheric–surface exchange fluxes by profile techniques. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90, 171188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horst, T. W., , and J. C. Weil, 1992: Footprint estimation for scalar flux measurements in the atmospheric surface area. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 59, 279296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hosker, R. P., 2003: Initial report on ATDD observations in OKC, June–July 2003. NOAA/ARL/ATDD Rep., 8 pp. [Available from ATDD, Oak Ridge, TN 37830.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kondo, H., , Y. Genchi, , Y. Kikegawa, , Y. Ohashi, , H. Yoshikado, , and H. Komiyama, 2005: Development of a multi-layer urban canopy model for the analysis of energy consumption in a big city: Structure of the urban canopy model and its basic performance. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 116, 395421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martilli, A., , A. Clapper, , and M. Rotach, 2002: An urban surface energy parameterization scheme for mesoscale models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 104, 261304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masson, V., 2006: Urban surface modeling and the meso-impact of cities. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 84, 3545.

  • Oke, T. R., 1987: Boundary Layer Climates. Routledge, 435 pp.

  • Pearlmutter, D., , P. Berliner, , and E. Shaviv, 2005: Evaluation of urban surface energy fluxes using an open-air scale model. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 532545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmid, H. P., 1994: Source areas for scalars and scalar fluxes. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 67, 293318.

  • Seibert, P., , F. Beyrich, , S.-E. Gryning, , S. Joffe, , A. Rasmussen, , and P. Tercier, 2000: Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height. Atmos. Environ., 34, 10011027.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sykes, R. I., , S. F. Parker, , D. S. Henn, , and B. Chowdhury, 2007: SCIPUFF 2.3 technical documentation. Titan Corp. Tech. Rep., 336 pp. [Available from Titan Corp., P.O. Box 2229, Princeton, NJ 08543-2229.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 11 11 5
PDF Downloads 5 5 2

Urban Energy Fluxes in Built-Up Downtown Areas and Variations across the Urban Area, for Use in Dispersion Models

View More View Less
  • 1 Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Surface energy fluxes, at averaging times from 10 min to 1 h, are needed as inputs to most state-of-the-art dispersion models. The sensible heat flux is a major priority, because it is combined with the momentum flux to estimate the stability, the wind profile, and the turbulence intensities. Because of recent concerns about dispersion in built-up downtown areas of large cities, there is a need to estimate sensible heat flux in the midst of tall buildings. In this paper, the authors work with some high-quality and relevant but arguably underutilized data. The results of analysis of urban heat flux components from 10 locations in suburban and built-up downtown areas in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are presented here. At street level in the downtown area, in the midst of tall skyscrapers, the ground heat flux and the sensible heat flux are relatively large and the latent heat flux is relatively small when compared with concurrent fluxes observed in the upwind suburban areas. In confirmation of measurements in other cities, the sensible heat flux in the downtown area is observed to be slightly positive (10–20 W m−2) at night, indicating nearly neutral or slightly unstable conditions. Also in agreement with observations in other cities is that the ground heat flux in the downtown area has a magnitude that is 3 or 4 times that in suburban or rural areas. These results should permit improved parameterizations of sensible heat fluxes in the urban downtown area with tall buildings.

Corresponding author address: Steven Hanna, 7 Crescent Ave., Kennebunkport, ME 04046-7235. E-mail: hannaconsult@roadrunner.com

Abstract

Surface energy fluxes, at averaging times from 10 min to 1 h, are needed as inputs to most state-of-the-art dispersion models. The sensible heat flux is a major priority, because it is combined with the momentum flux to estimate the stability, the wind profile, and the turbulence intensities. Because of recent concerns about dispersion in built-up downtown areas of large cities, there is a need to estimate sensible heat flux in the midst of tall buildings. In this paper, the authors work with some high-quality and relevant but arguably underutilized data. The results of analysis of urban heat flux components from 10 locations in suburban and built-up downtown areas in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are presented here. At street level in the downtown area, in the midst of tall skyscrapers, the ground heat flux and the sensible heat flux are relatively large and the latent heat flux is relatively small when compared with concurrent fluxes observed in the upwind suburban areas. In confirmation of measurements in other cities, the sensible heat flux in the downtown area is observed to be slightly positive (10–20 W m−2) at night, indicating nearly neutral or slightly unstable conditions. Also in agreement with observations in other cities is that the ground heat flux in the downtown area has a magnitude that is 3 or 4 times that in suburban or rural areas. These results should permit improved parameterizations of sensible heat fluxes in the urban downtown area with tall buildings.

Corresponding author address: Steven Hanna, 7 Crescent Ave., Kennebunkport, ME 04046-7235. E-mail: hannaconsult@roadrunner.com
Save