• Barr, S., M. M. Orgill, 1989: Influence of external meteorology on nocturnal valley drainage winds. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 497517.

  • Beniston, M., 2006: Mountain weather and climate: A general overview and a focus on climatic change in the Alps. Hydrobiologia, 562, 316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cathey, H. M., USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map.1990: USDA Misc. Publ. 1475. [Available online at http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cathey, H. M., 1997: Announcing the AHS Plant Heat-Zone Map. Amer. Gard., 76 (5) , 3037. [Available online at http://ahs.org/publications/heat_zone_map.htm.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cathey, H. M., and J. Heriteau, 1990: Mapping it out. Amer. Nurseryman, 171 (5), 55–59, 61–63.

  • Daly, C., 2006: Guidelines for assessing the suitability of spatial climate data sets. Int. J. Climatol., 26, 707721.

  • Daly, C., R. P. Neilson, and D. L. Phillips, 1994: A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 140158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, C., W. P. Gibson, G. H. Taylor, G. L. Johnson, and P. Pasteris, 2002: A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate. Climate Res., 22, 99113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, C., E. H. Helmer, and M. Quiñones, 2003: Mapping the climate of Puerto Rico, Vieques, and Culebra. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 13591381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, C., M. Halbleib, J. I. Smith, W. P. Gibson, M. K. Doggett, G. H. Taylor, J. Curtis, and P. A. Pasteris, 2008: Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation across the conterminous United States. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 20312064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dawson, I., 1991: Plant hardiness zones for Australia. Aust. Hort., 90 (8), 3739. [Color version of hardiness zone map available online at http://www.anbg.gov.au/hort.research/zones.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deal, D. L., and J. C. Raulston, 1989: Plant high night temperature tolerance zones: Describing and predicting summer night temperature patterns and the southern limits of plant adaptation. Agric. For. Meteor., 46, 211226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeGaetano, A. T., and M. D. Shulman, 1990: A climatic classification of plant hardiness in the United States and Canada. Agric. For. Meteor., 51, 333351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, D. J., 2003: The USDA plant hardiness zone map, 2003 edition. Amer. Gard., 82 (3), 3035.

  • George, M. F., M. J. Burke, H. M. Pellett, and A. G. Johnson, 1974: Low temperature exotherms and woody plant distribution. HortSci., 9, 519522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gyalistras, D., 2003: Development and validation of a high-resolution monthly gridded temperature and precipitation data set for Switzerland (1951–2000). Climate Res., 25, 5583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrell, F. E., Jr., 2001: Regression Modeling Strategies: With Applications to Linear Models, Logistic Regression, and Survival Analysis.Springer-Verlag, 568 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayashi, Y., 1990: Jumoku ato bukku (Tree art book). Abokkusha, 366 pp.

  • Heinze, W., and D. Schreiber, 1984: Eine neue Kartierung der Winterhärtezonen für Gehölze in Europa. Mitt. Dtsch. Dendrol. Ges., 75, 1156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houlder, D., M. Hutchinson, H. Nix, and J. McMahon, 2000: ANUCLIM user’s guide, version 5.1.Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Canberra, Australia. [Available online at http://fennerschool.anu.edu.au/publications/software/anuclim/doc/Contents.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S.-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP-DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kincer, J. B., 1928: Atlas of American Agriculture—Climate: Temperature, Sunshine, and Wind. U.S. Government Printing Office, 34 pp.

  • Larcher, W., 2005: Climatic constraints drive the evolution of low temperature resistance in woody plants. J. Agric. Meteor., 61, 189202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legates, D. R., and G. J. McCabe, 1999: Evaluating the use of “goodness of fit” measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Water Resour. Res., 35, 233241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundquist, J. D., D. R. Cayan, 2007: Surface temperature patterns in complex terrain: Daily variations and long-term changes in the central Sierra Nevada, California. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11124, doi:10.1029/2006JD007561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mather, J. R., and G. A. Yoshioka, 1968: The role of climate in the distribution of vegetation. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr., 58, 2941.

  • McKenney, D. W., M. F. Hutchinson, J. L. Kesteven, and L. A. Venier, 2001: Canada’s plant hardiness zones revisited using modern climate interpolation techniques. Can. J. Plant Sci., 81, 129143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKenney, D. W., J. H. Pedlar, K. Lawrence, K. Campbell, and M. F. Hutchinson, 2007: Beyond traditional hardiness zones: Using climate envelopes to map plant range limits. BioScience, 57, 929937.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCDC, 2003: Dataset 3220: Summary of the month data. National Climatic Data Center. [Available online at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/documentlibrary/surface-doc.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neter, J., W. Wasserman, and M. H. Kutner, 1989: Applied Linear Regression Models. 2nd ed. Richard D. Irwin, 667 pp.

  • Ouellet, C. E., and L. C. Sherk, 1967: Woody ornamental plant zonation. II: Suitability indices of localities. Can. J. Plant Sci., 47, 339349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pigott, C. D., 1981: Nature of seed sterility and natural regeneration of Tilia cordata near its northern limit in Finland. Ann. Bot. Fenn., 18, 255263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pigott, C. D., and J. P. Huntley, 1981: Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata at the northern limit of its geographical range. III. Nature and cause of seed sterility. New Phytol., 87, 817839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rehder, A., 1927: Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs. Macmillan, 209 pp.

  • Sabuco, J. J., 1989: Floradapt map: Flora’s winter adaptability—A plant hardiness zone map. [Available from White Oak Group, 320 202nd St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sakai, A., and C. J. Weiser, 1973: Freezing resistance of trees in North America with reference to tree regions. Ecology, 54, 118126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sakai, A., and W. Larcher, 1987: Frost Survival of Plants: Responses and Adaptation to Freezing Stress. Springer-Verlag, 321 pp.

  • Simpson, J. J., G. L. Hufford, C. Daly, J. S. Berg, and M. D. Fleming, 2005: Comparing maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada produced by two different methods. Arctic, 58, 137161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simpson, J. J., M. C. Stuart, and C. Daly, 2007: Climatic and environmental differentiation of Alaskan ecosystems. Arctic, 60, 341369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephenson, N. L., 1990: Climatic control of vegetation distribution: The role of the water balance. Amer. Nat., 135, 649670.

  • Stephenson, N. L., 1998: Actual evapotranspiration and deficit: Biologically meaningful correlates of vegetation distribution across spatial scales. J. Biogeogr., 25, 855870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutherst, R. W., G. F. Maywald, T. Yonow, and P. M. Stevens, 1999: CLIMEX: Predicting the Effects of Climate on Plants and Animals. CSIRO, 92 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • USDA, 1960: Plant Hardiness Zone Map for the United States. USDA Misc. Publ. 814, 1 p.

  • USDA, 1965: Plant Hardiness Zone Map for the United States (revised). USDA Misc. Publ. 814 (revised), 1 p.

  • Vogel, K. P., M. R. Schmer, and R. B. Mitchell, 2005: Plant adaptation regions: Ecological and climate classification of plant materials. Rangeland Ecol. Manage., 58, 315319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widrlechner, M. P., 1994: Environmental analogs in the search for stress-tolerant landscape plants. J. Arboriculture, 20, 114119.

  • Widrlechner, M. P., 1997: Hardiness zones in China. (Color map; scale ~1:16 360 000.) [Available online at http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/docs.htm?docid=9815&page=2.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widrlechner, M. P., 1999: A zone map for mean annual moisture balance in the north central United States. Landscape Plant News, 10 (2), 1014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widrlechner, M. P., E. R. Hasselkus, D. E. Herman, J. K. Iles, J. C. Pair, E. T. Paparozzi, R. E. Schutzki, and D. K. Wildung, 1992: Performance of landscape plants from Yugoslavia in the North Central United States. J. Environ. Hort., 10, 192198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widrlechner, M. P., and Coauthors, 1998: Performance of landscape plants from northern Japan in the north central United States. J. Environ. Hort., 16, 2732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widrlechner, M. P., R. E. Schutzki, V. Y. Yukhnovsky, and V. V. Sviatetsky, 2001: Collecting landscape trees and shrubs in Ukraine for the evaluation of aesthetic quality and adaptation in the north central United States. FAO/IPGRI Plant Genetic Resour. Newsl.,126, 12–16. [Color version of hardiness zone map available online at http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/docs.htm?docid=9815&page=3]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willmott, C. J., and K. Matsuura, 1995: Smart interpolation of annually averaged air temperature in the United States. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 25772586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willmott, C. J., and S. M. Robeson, 1995: Climatologically aided interpolation (CAI) of terrestrial air temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 15, 221229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willmott, C. J., S. G. Ackleson, R. E. Davis, J. J. Feddema, K. M. Klink, D. R. Legates, L. O’Donnell, and C. M. Rowe, 1985: Statistics for the evaluation and comparison of models. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 89959005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WMO, 1989: Calculation of monthly and annual 30-year standard normals. World Meteorological Organization, WCDP 10, WMO-TD 341, 11 pp.

  • Wyman, D., and H. L. Flint, 1985: Plant hardiness-zone maps. Arnoldia, 45 (4), 3234.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1318 1048 92
PDF Downloads 695 541 40

Development of a New USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map for the United States

View More View Less
  • 1 Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
  • | 2 U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, and North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
  • | 3 Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

In many regions of the world, the extremes of winter cold are a major determinant of the geographic distribution of perennial plant species and of their successful cultivation. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Hardiness Zone Map (PHZM) is the primary reference for defining geospatial patterns of extreme winter cold for the horticulture and nursery industries, home gardeners, agrometeorologists, and plant scientists. This paper describes the approaches followed for updating the USDA PHZM, the last version of which was published in 1990. The new PHZM depicts 1976–2005 mean annual extreme minimum temperature, in 2.8°C (5°F) half zones, for the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Station data were interpolated to a grid with the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) climate-mapping system. PRISM accounts for the effects of elevation, terrain-induced airmass blockage, coastal effects, temperature inversions, and cold-air pooling on extreme minimum temperature patterns. Climatologically aided interpolation was applied, based on the 1971–2000 mean minimum temperature of the coldest month as the predictor grid. Evaluation of a standard-deviation map and two 15-yr maps (1976–90 and 1991–2005 averaging periods) revealed substantial vertical and horizontal gradients in trend and variability, especially in complex terrain. The new PHZM is generally warmer by one 2.8°C (5°F) half zone than the previous PHZM throughout much of the United States, as a result of a more recent averaging period. Nonetheless, a more sophisticated interpolation technique, greater physiographic detail, and more comprehensive station data were the main causes of zonal changes in complex terrain, especially in the western United States. The updated PHZM can be accessed online (http://www.planthardiness.ars.usda.gov).

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author address: Christopher Daly, PRISM Climate Group, 2000 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. E-mail: chris.daly@oregonstate.edu

Abstract

In many regions of the world, the extremes of winter cold are a major determinant of the geographic distribution of perennial plant species and of their successful cultivation. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Hardiness Zone Map (PHZM) is the primary reference for defining geospatial patterns of extreme winter cold for the horticulture and nursery industries, home gardeners, agrometeorologists, and plant scientists. This paper describes the approaches followed for updating the USDA PHZM, the last version of which was published in 1990. The new PHZM depicts 1976–2005 mean annual extreme minimum temperature, in 2.8°C (5°F) half zones, for the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Station data were interpolated to a grid with the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) climate-mapping system. PRISM accounts for the effects of elevation, terrain-induced airmass blockage, coastal effects, temperature inversions, and cold-air pooling on extreme minimum temperature patterns. Climatologically aided interpolation was applied, based on the 1971–2000 mean minimum temperature of the coldest month as the predictor grid. Evaluation of a standard-deviation map and two 15-yr maps (1976–90 and 1991–2005 averaging periods) revealed substantial vertical and horizontal gradients in trend and variability, especially in complex terrain. The new PHZM is generally warmer by one 2.8°C (5°F) half zone than the previous PHZM throughout much of the United States, as a result of a more recent averaging period. Nonetheless, a more sophisticated interpolation technique, greater physiographic detail, and more comprehensive station data were the main causes of zonal changes in complex terrain, especially in the western United States. The updated PHZM can be accessed online (http://www.planthardiness.ars.usda.gov).

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author address: Christopher Daly, PRISM Climate Group, 2000 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. E-mail: chris.daly@oregonstate.edu
Save