• Beljaars, A. C. M., A. R. Brown, and N. Wood, 2004: A new parametrization of turbulent orographic form drag. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 13271347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernardet, L. R., L. Nance, H.-Y. Chuang, A. Loughe, M. Demirtas, S. Koch, and R. Gall, 2005: The developmental testbed center winter forecasting experiment. Preprints, 21st Conf. on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/17th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Washington, DC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 7.1. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/94730.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. R., and N. Wood, 2001: Turbulent form drag on anisotropic three-dimensional orography. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 101, 229241.

  • Cheng, W. Y. Y., and W. J. Steenburgh, 2005: Evaluation of surface sensible weather forecast by the WRF and the Eta Models over the western United States. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 812821.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chien, F.-C., and C. F. Mass, 1994: A numerical study of the interaction between frontal systems and coastal mountains. Proc. Fourth PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR, 78–82.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 30773107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1996: A multilayer soil temperature model for MM5. Preprints, Sixth PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR, 49–50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., D. Gill, K. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, 2004: PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user’s guide (MM5 modeling system version 3). [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairless, D., 2007: How did a little Spanish province become one of the world’s wind-energy giants? Nature, 447, 10461048.

  • Farr, T. G., and Coauthors, 2007: The shuttle radar topography mission. Rev. Geophys., 45, RG2004, doi:10.1029/2005RG000183.

  • Fiedler, F., and H. A. Panofsky, 1972: The geostrophic drag coefficient and the ‘effective’ roughness length. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 98, 213220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García-Bustamante, E., J. F. González-Rouco, P. A. Jiménez, J. Navarro, and J. P. Montávez, 2008: The influence of the Weibull assumption in monthly wind energy estimation. Wind Energy, 11, 483502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García-Bustamante, E., J. F. González-Rouco, P. A. Jiménez, J. Navarro, and J. P. Montávez, 2009: A comparison of methodologies for monthly wind energy estimations. Wind Energy, 12, 640659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García-Bustamante, E., J. F. González-Rouco, J. Navarro, E. Xoplaki, P. A. Jiménez, and J. P. Montávez, 2012: North Atlantic atmospheric circulation and surface wind in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: Uncertainty and long term downscaled variability. Climate Dyn., 38, 141160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Georgelin, M., and Coauthors, 2000: The second COMPARE exercise: A model intercomparison using a case of a typical mesoscale orographic flow, the PYREX IOP3. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 9911029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grant, A., and P. Mason, 1990: Observations of boundary-layer structure over complex terrain. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 116, 159186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, S.-Y., and J.-O. J. Lim, 2006: The WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6). J. Kor. Meteor. Soc., 42, 129151.

  • Hong, S.-Y., Y. Noh, and J. Dudhia, 2006: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 23182341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, T., and P. Clark, 2007: Correction and downscaling of NWP wind speed forecasts. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 14, 105116.

  • Jiménez, P. A., J. F. González-Rouco, J. P. Montávez, J. Navarro, E. García-Bustamante, and F. Valero, 2008: Surface wind regionalization in complex terrain. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 308325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, P. A., J. F. González-Rouco, J. P. Montávez, E. García-Bustamante, and J. Navarro, 2009a: Climatology of wind patterns in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 501525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, P. A., J. P. Montávez, E. García-Bustamante, J. Navarro, J. M. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, E. E. Lucio-Eceiza, and J. F. González-Rouco, 2009b: Diurnal surface wind variations over complex terrain. Fís. Tierra, 21, 7991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, P. A., J. F. González-Rouco, E. García-Bustamante, J. Navarro, J. P. Montávez, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. Dudhia, and A. Roldán, 2010a: Surface wind regionalization over complex terrain: Evaluation and analysis of a high-resolution WRF numerical simulation. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 268287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, P. A., J. F. González-Rouco, J. Navarro, J. P. Montávez, and E. García-Bustamante, 2010b: Quality assurance of surface wind observations from automated weather stations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 11011122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez, P. A., J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. F. González-Rouco, J. Navarro, J. P. Montávez, E. García-Bustamante, and J. Dudhia, 2011: The effect of heat waves and drought on the surface wind circulations in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula during the summer of 2003. J. Climate, 24, 54165422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1990: A one-dimensional entraining/detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 27842802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1993: Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mass, C., and D. Ovens, 2010: WRF model physics: Problems, solutions and a new paradigm for progress. Preprints, 2010 WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/workshops/WS2010/presentations/session%204/4-1_WRFworkshop2010Final.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mass, C., and D. Ovens, 2011: Fixing WRF’s high speed wind bias: A new subgrid scale drag parameterization and the role of detailed verification. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Weather and Forecasting/20th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 9B.6. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/91Annual/webprogram/Paper180011.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mesinger, F., R. L. Wobus, and M. E. Baldwin, 1996: Parameterization of form drag in the Eta Model at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Numerical Weather Predition, Norfolk, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 324–326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milton, S. F., and C. A. Wilson, 1996: The impact of parameterized subgrid-scale orographic forcing on systematic errors in a global NWP model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 20232045.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mlawer, E. J., S. J. Taubman, P. D. Brown, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, 1997: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16 66316 682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reuter, H. I., A. Nelson, and A. Jarvis, 2007: An evaluation of void filling interpolation methods for SRTM data. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 21, 9831008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rife, D., C. Davis, and J. Knievel, 2009: Temporal changes in wind as objects for evaluating mesoscale numerical weather prediction. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 13741389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rontu, L., 2006: A study on parameterization of orography-related momentum fluxes in a synoptic-scale NWP model. Tellus, 58A, 6981.

  • Roux, G., Y. Liu, L. D. Monache, R.-S. Sheu, and T. T. Warner, 2009: Verification of high resolution WRF-RTFDDA surface forecasts over mountains and plains. Preprints, 2009 WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, NCAR. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/workshops/WS2009/abstracts/5B-05.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Rep. TN-475+STR, 113 pp.

  • Wilson, J. D., 2002: Representing drag on unresolved terrain as a distributed momentum sink. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 16291637.

  • Wood, N., and P. J. Mason, 1993: The pressure force induced by neutral, turbulent flow over hills. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 12331267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, N., A. Brown, and R. Hewer, 2001: Parametrizing the effects of orography on the boundary layer: An alternative to effective roughness lengths. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 759777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2020 1831 116
PDF Downloads 919 733 72

Improving the Representation of Resolved and Unresolved Topographic Effects on Surface Wind in the WRF Model

View More View Less
  • 1 División de Energías Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, and Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
  • | 2 Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model presents a high surface wind speed bias over plains and valleys that constitutes a limitation for the increasing use of the model for several applications. This study attempts to correct for this bias by parameterizing the effects that the unresolved topographic features exert over the momentum flux. The proposed parameterization is based on the concept of a momentum sink term and makes use of the standard deviation of the subgrid-scale orography as well as the Laplacian of the topographic field. Both the drag generated by the unresolved terrain and the possibility of an increase in the speed of the flow over the mountains and hills, where it is herein shown that WRF presents a low wind speed bias, are considered in the scheme. The surface wind simulation over a complex-terrain region that is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula is improved with the inclusion of the new parameterization. In particular, the underestimation of the wind speed spatial variability resulting from the mentioned biases is corrected. The importance of selecting appropriate grid points to compare with observations is also examined. The wind speed from the nearest grid point is not always the most appropriate one for this comparison, nearby ones being more representative. The new scheme not only improves the climatological winds but also the intradiurnal variations at the mountains, over which the default WRF shows limitations in reproducing the observed wind behavior. Some advantages of the proposed formulation for wind-resource evaluation are also discussed.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Pedro A. Jiménez, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3450 Mitchell Ln., Boulder, CO 80301. E-mail: jimenez@ucar.edu

Abstract

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model presents a high surface wind speed bias over plains and valleys that constitutes a limitation for the increasing use of the model for several applications. This study attempts to correct for this bias by parameterizing the effects that the unresolved topographic features exert over the momentum flux. The proposed parameterization is based on the concept of a momentum sink term and makes use of the standard deviation of the subgrid-scale orography as well as the Laplacian of the topographic field. Both the drag generated by the unresolved terrain and the possibility of an increase in the speed of the flow over the mountains and hills, where it is herein shown that WRF presents a low wind speed bias, are considered in the scheme. The surface wind simulation over a complex-terrain region that is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula is improved with the inclusion of the new parameterization. In particular, the underestimation of the wind speed spatial variability resulting from the mentioned biases is corrected. The importance of selecting appropriate grid points to compare with observations is also examined. The wind speed from the nearest grid point is not always the most appropriate one for this comparison, nearby ones being more representative. The new scheme not only improves the climatological winds but also the intradiurnal variations at the mountains, over which the default WRF shows limitations in reproducing the observed wind behavior. Some advantages of the proposed formulation for wind-resource evaluation are also discussed.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Pedro A. Jiménez, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3450 Mitchell Ln., Boulder, CO 80301. E-mail: jimenez@ucar.edu
Save