• Berg, W., , C. Kummerow, , and C. A. Morales, 2002: Differences between east and west Pacific rainfall systems. J. Climate, 15, 36593672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, W., , T. L’Ecuyer, , and C. Kummerow, 2006: Rainfall climate regimes: The relationship of regional TRMM rainfall biases to the environment. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 434454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biggerstaff, M. I., , and R. A. Houze Jr., 1993: Kinematics and microphysics of the transition zone of the 10–11 June 1985 squall line. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 30913110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biggerstaff, M. I., , and S. A. Listemaa, 2000: An improved scheme for convective/stratiform echo classification using radar reflectivity. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 21292150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biggerstaff, M. I., , and E.-K. Seo, 2010: An EOF-based comparison and evaluation of simulated passive microwave signatures to observations over tropical oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D15209, doi:10.1029/2009JD013029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biggerstaff, M. I., , E.-K. Seo, , S. Hristova-Veleva, , and K.-Y. Kim, 2006: Impact of cloud model microphysics on passive microwave retrievals of cloud properties. Part I: Model comparison using EOF analyses. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 930954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowman, K. P., 2005: Comparison of TRMM precipitation retrievals with rain gauge data from ocean buoys. J. Climate, 18, 178190.

  • Cifelli, R., , S. W. Nesbitt, , S. A. Rutledge, , W. A. Petersen, , and S. Yuter, 2007: Radar characteristics of precipitation features in the EPIC and TEPPS regions of the east Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 15761595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, K. F., , and G. L. Stephens, 1993: Microwave remote sensing algorithms for cirrus clouds and precipitation. Colorado State University Dept. of Atmospheric Science Paper 540, 198 pp. [Available online at http://digitool.library.colostate.edu///exlibris/dtl/d3_1/apache_media/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS82MDg5OQ==.pdf]

  • Evans, K. F., , S. J. Walter, , A. J. Heymsfield, , and G. M. McFarquhar, 2002: Submillimeter-wave cloud ice radiometer: Simulations of retrieval algorithm performance. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4028, doi:10.1029/2001JD000709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymsfield, G. M., , B. Geerts, , and L. Tian, 2000: TRMM precipitation radar reflectivity profiles as compared with high-resolution airborne and ground-based radar measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 20802102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., 1981: Structure of atmospheric precipitation systems—A global survey. Radio Sci., 16, 671689.

  • Houze, R. A., Jr., , S. Brodzik, , C. Schumacher, , and S. E. Yuter, 2004: Uncertainties in oceanic radar rain maps at Kwajalein and implications for satellite validation. J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 11141132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C., , W. S. Olson, , and L. Giglo, 1996: A simplified scheme for obtaining precipitation and vertical hydrometeor profiles from passive microwave sensors. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 34, 12131232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C., , W. Barnes, , T. Kozo, , J. Shiute, , and J. Simpson, 1998: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15, 809817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C., and Coauthors, 2000: The status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 19651982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kummerow, C., and Coauthors, 2001: The evolution of the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF) for rainfall estimation from passive microwave sensors. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 18011820.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K. M., , and H. T. Wu, 2003: Warm rain processes over tropical oceans and climate implications. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2290, doi:10.1029/2003GL018567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, X., , and A. Hou, 2008: Evaluation of coincident passive microwave rainfall estimates using TRMM PR and ground measurements as references. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 31703187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mugnai, A., , E. A. Smith, , and G. J. Tripoli, 1993: Foundations for statistical–physical precipitation retrieval from passive microwave satellite measurements. Part II: Emission-source and generalized weighting-function properties of a time dependent cloud-radiation model. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 1739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olson, W. S., , C. D. Kummerow, , G. M. Heymsfield, , and L. Giglio, 1996: A method for combined passive–active microwave retrievals of cloud and precipitation profiles. J. Appl. Meteor., 35, 17631789.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olson, W. S., and Coauthors, 2006: Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part I: Method and uncertainties. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 702720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panegrossi, G., and Coauthors, 1998: Use of cloud model microphysics for passive microwave-based precipitation retrieval: Significance of consistency between model and measurement manifolds. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 16441673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petersen, W. A., , and S. A. Rutledge, 2001: Regional variability in tropical convection: Observations from TRMM. J. Climate, 14, 35663586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petty, G. W., 1994: Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part II: Algorithm implementation. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 54, 101121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petty, G. W., 1995: Frequencies and characteristics of global oceanic precipitation from shipboard present-weather reports. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 15931616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seo, E.-K., , and G. Liu, 2005: Retrievals of cloud ice water path by combining ground cloud radar and satellite high-frequency microwave measurements near the ARM SGP site. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14203, doi:10.1029/2004JD005727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seo, E.-K., , and M. I. Biggerstaff, 2006: Impact of cloud model microphysics on passive microwave retrievals of cloud properties. Part II: Uncertainty in rain, hydrometeor structure, and latent heating retrievals. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 955972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seo, E.-K., , G. Liu, , W.-K. Tao, , and S.-O. Han, 2007a: Adaptation of model-generated cloud database to satellite observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L03805, doi:10.1029/2006GL027857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seo, E.-K., , B.-J. Sohn, , and G. Liu, 2007b: How TRMM precipitation radar and Microwave Imager retrieved rain rates differ. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24803, doi:10.1029/2007GL032331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simpson, J., , R. F. Alder, , and G. R. North, 1988: A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69, 278295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spencer, R. W., , B. B. Hinton, , and W. S. Olson, 1983: Nimbus-7 37-GHz radiances correlated with radar rain rates over the Gulf of Mexico. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 20952099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, W.-K., , and J. Simpson, 1993: Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci., 4, 3572.

  • Wilheit, T. T., , A. T. C. Chang, , M. S. V. Rao, , E. B. Rodgers, , and J. S. Theon, 1977: A satellite technique for quantitatively mapping rainfall rates over the oceans. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 551560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilheit, T. T., and Coauthors, 1982: Microwave radiometric observations near 19.35, 92 and 183 GHz of precipitation in Tropical Storm Cora. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 11371145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolff, D. B., , and B. L. Fisher, 2008: Comparisons of instantaneous TRMM ground validation and satellite rain rate estimates at different spatial scales. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 22152237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolff, D. B., , D. Marks, , E. Amitai, , D. S. Silberman, , A. Tokay, , J. L. Pippitt, , and J. Wang, 2005: Ground validation for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22, 365380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., , and J. A. Weinman, 1984: Microwave radiances from precipitating clouds containing aspherical ice, combined phase, and liquid hydrometeors. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 71707178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuter, S. E., , R. A. Houze Jr., , E. A. Smith, , T. T. Wilheit, , and E. Zipser, 2005: Physical characterization of tropical oceanic convection observed in KWAJEX. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 385415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 10 10 1
PDF Downloads 4 4 0

Regional Variability within Global-Scale Relations between Passive Microwave Signatures and Raining Clouds over the Tropical Oceans

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Earth Science Education, Kongju National University, Kongju, South Korea
  • | 2 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of radiance vectors associated with emission and scattering indices for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) has been performed to examine the regional variability in relations between brightness temperature and rain rate over portions of the tropical oceans known to exhibit regional differences due to different thermodynamic environments and different large-scale forcing. The TMI indices and rain rates used in this study are the products of the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF), version 6. The EOF framework reduces the nine-dimensional space of the brightness temperatures and their polarizations to just two dimensions associated with the EOF coefficients. Vertical profiles of reflectivity from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) are used to show that the statistically obtained EOFs represent bulk physical characteristics of raining clouds. Hence, EOF analysis provides an efficient framework for diagnosing regional differences in cloud structures that affect brightness temperature–rain-rate relations. The EOF framework revealed fundamental differences in the behavior of TMI surface rain-rate retrievals versus retrievals that are based on the PR aboard the TRMM satellite. In EOF space, TMI rain rates were bimodally distributed, with one mode indicating higher rain rates with greater high-density ice and rainwater content in the cloud and the other mode being consistent with moderately heavy warm rain from shallow convection. In contrast, the PR rain-rate distribution showed high rain rates being assigned over a much greater diversity of cloud structures. The manifold of EOF space constructively shows that, of the regions examined here, the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean region produces the greatest occurrence of particularly strong cumulonimbus clouds.

Corresponding author address: Eun-Kyoung Seo, Dept. of Earth Science Education, Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701, South Korea. E-mail: ekseo@kongju.ac.kr

Abstract

Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of radiance vectors associated with emission and scattering indices for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) has been performed to examine the regional variability in relations between brightness temperature and rain rate over portions of the tropical oceans known to exhibit regional differences due to different thermodynamic environments and different large-scale forcing. The TMI indices and rain rates used in this study are the products of the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF), version 6. The EOF framework reduces the nine-dimensional space of the brightness temperatures and their polarizations to just two dimensions associated with the EOF coefficients. Vertical profiles of reflectivity from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) are used to show that the statistically obtained EOFs represent bulk physical characteristics of raining clouds. Hence, EOF analysis provides an efficient framework for diagnosing regional differences in cloud structures that affect brightness temperature–rain-rate relations. The EOF framework revealed fundamental differences in the behavior of TMI surface rain-rate retrievals versus retrievals that are based on the PR aboard the TRMM satellite. In EOF space, TMI rain rates were bimodally distributed, with one mode indicating higher rain rates with greater high-density ice and rainwater content in the cloud and the other mode being consistent with moderately heavy warm rain from shallow convection. In contrast, the PR rain-rate distribution showed high rain rates being assigned over a much greater diversity of cloud structures. The manifold of EOF space constructively shows that, of the regions examined here, the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean region produces the greatest occurrence of particularly strong cumulonimbus clouds.

Corresponding author address: Eun-Kyoung Seo, Dept. of Earth Science Education, Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701, South Korea. E-mail: ekseo@kongju.ac.kr
Save