Isolating the Industrial Contribution of PM2.5 in Hamilton and Burlington, Ontario

H. W. Barker Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Search for other papers by H. W. Barker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Hourly measurements of particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) have been made at air-monitoring sites in Hamilton and Burlington, Ontario, Canada, since 2003. These sites are separated by ~6 km; Burlington is right on Lake Ontario while Hamilton has, directly to the east, very heavy industry between it and Lake Ontario. Hence, by taking the difference between measurements at Hamilton and Burlington, it is possible to isolate, during east-wind conditions, PM2.5 that result from emissions from the industrial sectors (primarily steel mills) located in Hamilton’s northeast end. After screening the data for east winds off Lake Ontario, it was found that median background values of PM2.5, of 5–10 μg m−3 are increased by an additional 5–10 μg m−3 by emissions from local sources. On the contrary, however, industrial contributions to PM2.5 in Burlington during south winds are much smaller at ~3 μg m−3 (industrial sectors are due south of Burlington). This difference is likely due either to wind direction–dependent local circulation patterns or to alignment of sources that can concentrate PM2.5 into Hamilton. It was also found that throughout much of 2009, but especially during spring and early summer, the industrial contribution of PM2.5 at Hamilton was reduced relative to other years by amounts that are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, even when measurements are augmented with large amounts of Gaussian noise. These reductions are consistent with documented reductions in steel production during the global economic crisis that peaked in the first half of 2009.

Additional affiliation: School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Corresponding author address: Howard Barker, Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section (ARMP), Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada. E-mail: howard.barker@ec.gc.ca

Abstract

Hourly measurements of particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) have been made at air-monitoring sites in Hamilton and Burlington, Ontario, Canada, since 2003. These sites are separated by ~6 km; Burlington is right on Lake Ontario while Hamilton has, directly to the east, very heavy industry between it and Lake Ontario. Hence, by taking the difference between measurements at Hamilton and Burlington, it is possible to isolate, during east-wind conditions, PM2.5 that result from emissions from the industrial sectors (primarily steel mills) located in Hamilton’s northeast end. After screening the data for east winds off Lake Ontario, it was found that median background values of PM2.5, of 5–10 μg m−3 are increased by an additional 5–10 μg m−3 by emissions from local sources. On the contrary, however, industrial contributions to PM2.5 in Burlington during south winds are much smaller at ~3 μg m−3 (industrial sectors are due south of Burlington). This difference is likely due either to wind direction–dependent local circulation patterns or to alignment of sources that can concentrate PM2.5 into Hamilton. It was also found that throughout much of 2009, but especially during spring and early summer, the industrial contribution of PM2.5 at Hamilton was reduced relative to other years by amounts that are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, even when measurements are augmented with large amounts of Gaussian noise. These reductions are consistent with documented reductions in steel production during the global economic crisis that peaked in the first half of 2009.

Additional affiliation: School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Corresponding author address: Howard Barker, Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section (ARMP), Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada. E-mail: howard.barker@ec.gc.ca
Save
  • Brent, R. P., 1973: Algorithms for Minimization without Derivatives. Prentice-Hall, 195 pp.

  • Brunekreef, B., 1997: Air pollution and life expectancy: Is there a relation? Occup. Environ. Med., 54, 781784.

  • Coyle, D., D. Stieb, R. T. Burnett, P. DeCivita, D. Krewski, Y. Chen, and M. J. Thun, 2003: Impact of particulate air pollution on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Canada. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 66A, 18471863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Efron, B., 1979: Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife. Ann. Stat., 7, 126.

  • Fioletov, V. E., C. A. McLinden, N. Krotkov, M. D. Moran, and K. Yang, 2011: Estimation of SO2 emissions using OMI retrievals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L21811, doi:10.1029/2011GL049402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hains, J. C., L.-W. A. Chen, B. F. Taubman, B. G. Doddridge, and R. R. Dickerson, 2007: A side-by-side comparison of filter-based PM2.5 measurements at a suburban site: A closure study. Atmos. Environ., 41, 61676184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jerrett, M., 2005: Spatial analysis of air pollution and mortality in Los Angeles. Epidemiology, 16, 727736.

  • Li, Z., F. Niu, J. Fan, Y. Liu, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Ding, 2011: Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation. Nat. Geosci., 4, 888894.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mokdad, A. H., J. S. Marks, D. F. Stroup, and J. L. Gerberding, 2004: Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA, 291, 12381245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 2012: Air Quality in Ontario: Report for 2010. PIBS-8640e, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 90 pp.

  • Pope, C. A., M. Ezzati, and D. W. Dockery, 2009: Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med., 360, 376386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Press, W. H., B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, 1992: Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, 933 pp.

  • von Storch, H., and F. W. Zwiers, 1999: Statistical Analysis in Climate Research. Cambridge University Press, 484 pp.

  • World Health Organization, 2005: WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide—Global update 2005: Summary of risk assessment. WHO Rep. WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH/06.02, 20 pp. [Available online at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf.]

  • World Steel Association, cited 2011: Crude steel production. [Available online at http://www.worldsteel.org/statistics/crude-steel-production.html.]

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 267 168 10
PDF Downloads 121 49 6