• Arriaga-Ramírez, S., , and T. Cavazos, 2010: Regional trends of daily precipitation indices in northwest Mexico and southwest United States. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D14111, doi:10.1029/2009JD013248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Badas, M. G., , R. Deidda, , and E. Piga, 2006: Modulation of homogeneous space–time rainfall cascades to account for orographic influences. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 427437, doi:10.5194/nhess-6-427-2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, E. J., , and E. H. Berbery, 2008: The diurnal cycle of precipitation over the North American monsoon region during the NAME 2004 field campaign. J. Climate, 21, 771787, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1642.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bindlish, R., and et al. , 2008: Aircraft based soil moisture retrievals under mixed vegetation and topographic conditions. Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 375390, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.01.024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brito-Castillo, L., , A. V. Douglas, , A. Leyva-Contreras, , and D. Lluch-Belda, 2003: The effect of large-scale circulation on precipitation and streamflow in the Gulf of California continental watershed. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 751768, doi:10.1002/joc.913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coblentz, D. D., , and K. H. Riitters, 2004: Topographic controls on the regional-scale biodiversity of the south-western USA. J. Biogeogr., 31, 11251138, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.00981.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deidda, R., 2000: Rainfall downscaling in a space–time multifractal framework. Water Resour. Res., 36, 17791794, doi:10.1029/2000WR900038.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deidda, R., , R. Benzi, , and F. Siccardi, 1999: Multifractal modeling of anomalous scaling laws in rainfall. Water Resour. Res., 35, 18531867, doi:10.1029/1999WR900036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deidda, R., , M. G. Badas, , and E. Piga, 2004: Space-time scaling in high-intensity Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) storms. Water Resour. Res., 40, W02506, doi:10.1029/2003WR002574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deidda, R., , M. G. Badas, , and E. Piga, 2006: Space-time multifractality of remotely sensed rainfall fields. J. Hydrol., 322, 213, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.02.036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douglas, A. V., , and P. J. Englehart, 2007: A climatological perspective of transient synoptic features during NAME 2004. J. Climate, 20, 19471954, doi:10.1175/JCLI4095.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douglas, M. W., , R. A. Maddox, , K. Howard, , and S. Reyes, 1993: The Mexican monsoon. J. Climate, 6, 16651677, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1665:TMM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fraedrich, K., , and C. Larnder, 1993: Scaling regimes of composite rainfall time series. Tellus, 45, 289298, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1993.t01-3-00004.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gebremichael, M., , E. R. Vivoni, , C. J. Watts, , and J. C. Rodriguez, 2007: Sub-mesoscale spatiotemporal variability of North American monsoon rainfall over complex terrain. J. Climate, 20, 17511773, doi:10.1175/JCLI4093.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Georgakakos, K. P., , and M. L. Kavvas, 1987: Precipitation analysis, modeling, and prediction in hydrology. Rev. Geophys., 25, 163178, doi:10.1029/RG025i002p00163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , J. C. Leal, , W. J. Shuttleworth, , C. J. Watts, and J. Garatuza-Payan, 2003: Preliminary diagnostics from a new event-based precipitation monitoring system in support of the North American Monsoon Experiment. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 974981, doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<0974:PDFANE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , A. Jimenez, , C. J. Watts, , J. Garatuza-Payan, , and W. J. Shuttleworth, 2004: Analysis of 2002 and 2003 warm-season precipitation from the North American Monsoon Experiment Event Rain Gauge Network. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 29382953, doi:10.1175/MWR2838.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , L. Brito-Castillo, , and W. J. Shuttleworth, 2006: Hydroclimatology of the North American monsoon region in northwest Mexico. J. Hydrol., 316, 5370, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.04.021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , C. J. Watts, , J. Garatuza, , and J. C. Rodriguez, 2007: Spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation intensity as observed by the NAME Event Rain Gauge Network from 2002 to 2004. J. Climate, 20, 17341750, doi:10.1175/JCLI4092.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , S. W. Nesbitt, , W. Yu, , and S. F. Williams, 2009: Comparison of gauge-corrected versus non-gauge corrected satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates during the 2004 NAME enhanced observing period. Atmósfera, 22, 6998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gutierrez-Ruacho, O. G., , L. Brito-Castillo, , S. Diaz-Castro, , and C. J. Watts, 2010: Trends in rainfall and extreme temperatures in northwestern Mexico. Climate Res., 42, 133142, doi:10.3354/cr00874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallack-Alegría, M., , and D. W. Watkins, 2007: Annual and warm season drought intensity–duration–frequency analysis for Sonora, Mexico. J. Climate, 20, 18971909, doi:10.1175/JCLI4101.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higgins, R. W., and et al. , 2006: The North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) 2004 field campaign and modeling strategy. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 7994, doi:10.1175/BAMS-87-1-79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, Y., , D. J. Gochis, , J. Cheng, , K. Hsu, , and S. Sorooshian, 2007: Evaluation of PERSIANN-CCS rainfall measurement using the NAME Event Rain Gauge Network. J. Hydrometeor., 8, 469482, doi:10.1175/JHM574.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • INEGI, 1998: Modelos digitales de elevación, scale 1:24000 (1:24000-scale digital elevation models). Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, Mexico City, Mexico, CD-ROM A03593.

  • Johnson, R. H., , P. E. Ciesielski, , B. D. McNoldy, , P. J. Rogers, , and R. K. Taft, 2007: Multiscale variability of the flow during the North American Monsoon Experiment. J. Climate, 20, 16281648, doi:10.1175/JCLI4087.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langousis, A., , and D. Veneziano, 2007: Intensity-duration-frequency curves from scaling representations of rainfall. Water Resour. Res., 43, W02422, doi:10.1029/2006WR005245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langousis, A., , and D. Veneziano, 2009a: Long-term rainfall risk from tropical cyclones in coastal areas. Water Resour. Res., 45, doi:10.1029/2008WR007624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langousis, A., , and D. Veneziano, 2009b: Theoretical model of rainfall in tropical cyclones for the assessment of long-term risk. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mascaro, G., , and E. R. Vivoni, 2010: Statistical and scaling properties of remotely sensed soil moisture in two contrasting domains in the North American monsoon region. J. Arid Environ., 74, 572578, doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.09.023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mascaro, G., , and E. R. Vivoni, 2012: Utility of coarse and downscaled soil moisture products at L-band for hydrologic modeling at the catchment scale. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10403, doi:10.1029/2012GL051809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mascaro, G., , R. Deidda, , and M. Hellies, 2013: On the nature of rainfall intermittency as revealed by different metrics and sampling approaches. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 355369, doi:10.5194/hess-17-355-2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Méndez-Barroso, L. A., , E. R. Vivoni, , C. J. Watts, , and J. C. Rodriguez, 2009: Seasonal and interannual relation between precipitation, surface soil moisture and vegetation dynamics in the North American monsoon region. J. Hydrol., 377, 5970, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.08.009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molini, A., , G. G. Katul, , and A. Porporato, 2009: Revisiting rainfall clustering and intermittency across different climatic regimes. Water Resour. Res., 45, doi:10.1029/2008WR007352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nesbitt, S. W., , D. J. Gochis, , and T. J. Lang, 2008: The diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation along the Sierra Madre Occidental observed during NAME-2004: Implications for warm season precipitation estimation in complex terrain. J. Hydrometeor., 9, 728743, doi:10.1175/2008JHM939.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Over, T. M., , and V. K. Gupta, 1994: Statistical analysis of mesoscale rainfall: Dependence of a random cascade generator on large-scale forcing. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 15261542, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1994)033<1526:SAOMRD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Purdy, J. C., , D. Harris, , G. L. Austin, , A. W. Seed, , and W. Gray, 2001: A case study of orographic rainfall processes incorporating multiscaling characterization techniques. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 78377845, doi:10.1029/2000JD900622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robles-Morua, A., , D. Che, , A. S. Mayer, , and E. R. Vivoni, 2013: Hydrologic assessment of proposed reservoirs in the Sonora River basin under historical and future climate scenarios. Hydrol. Sci. J., doi:10.1080/02626667.2013.878462, in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodríguez-Iturbe, I., , and A. Porporato, 2004: Ecohydrology of Water-Controlled Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press‬, 442 pp.

  • Rowe, A. K., , S. A. Rutledge, , T. J. Lang, , P. E. Ciesielski, , and S. M. Saleeby, 2008: Elevation-dependent trends in precipitation observed during NAME. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 49624979, doi:10.1175/2008MWR2397.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seo, D.-J., , S. Perica, , E. Welles, , and J. C. Schaake, 2000: Simulation of precipitation fields from probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts. J. Hydrol., 239, 203229, doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00345-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SIUE-IMADES, 1998: Proyecto de Ordenamiento Ecologico del Territorio del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico (Ecological Planning Project of the Territory of the State of Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico). Secretaría de Infraestructura Urbana y Ecología–Instituto del Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Sonora, 577 pp.

  • Veneziano, D., , and A. Langousis, 2010: Scaling and fractals in hydrology. Advances in Data-Based Approaches for Hydrologic Modeling and Forecasting, B. Sivakumar and R. Berndtsson, Eds., World Scientific, 145 pp.

  • Venugopal, V., , E. Foufula-Georgiou, , and V. Sapozhnikov, 1999: Evidence of dynamic scaling in space–time rainfall. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 31 59931 610, doi:10.1029/1999JD900437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verrier, S., , C. Mallet, , and L. Barthés, 2011: Multiscaling properties of rain in the time domain, taking into account rain support biases. J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2011JD015719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivoni, E. R., 2012: Diagnosing seasonal vegetation impacts on evapotranspiration and its partitioning at the catchment scale during SMEX04-NAME. J. Hydrometeor., 13, 16311638, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-0131.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivoni, E. R., and et al. , 2007: Variation of hydrometeorogical conditions along a topographic transect in northwestern Mexico during the North American monsoon. J. Climate, 20, 17921809, doi:10.1175/JCLI4094.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivoni, E. R., , M. Gebremichael, , C. J. Watts, , R. Bindlish, , and T. J. Jackson, 2008a: Comparison of ground-based and remotely sensed surface soil moisture estimates over complex terrain during SMEX04. Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 314325, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.10.028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivoni, E. R., , H. A. Moreno, , G. Mascaro, , J. C. Rodriguez, , C. J. Watts, , J. Garatuza-Payan, , and R. Scott, 2008b: Observed relation between evapotranspiration and soil moisture in the North American monsoon region. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22403, doi:10.1029/2008GL036001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivoni, E. R., , J. C. Rodriguez, , and C. J. Watts, 2010a: On the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture and evapotranspiration in a mountainous basin within the North American monsoon region. Water Resour. Res., 46, W02509, doi:10.1029/2009WR008240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivoni, E. R., , C. J. Watts, , J. C. Rodriguez, , J. Garatuza-Payan, , L. A. Mendez-Barroso, , and J. A. Saiz-Hernandez, 2010b: Improved land–atmosphere relations through distributed footprint measurements in a subtropical scrubland during the North American monsoon. J. Arid Environ., 74, 579584, doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.09.031.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watts, C. J., , R. L. Scott, , J. Garatuza, , J. C. Rodriguez, , J. H. Prueger, , W. P. Kustas, , and M. Douglas, 2007: Changes in vegetation condition and surface fluxes during NAME 2004. J. Climate, 20, 18101820, doi:10.1175/JCLI4088.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yepez, E. A., , R. L. Scott, , W. L. Cable, , and D. G. Williams, 2007: Intraseasonal variation in water and carbon dioxide flux components in a semiarid riparian woodland. Ecosystems, 10, 11001115, doi:10.1007/s10021-007-9079-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yucel, I., , R. J. Kuligowski, , and D. J. Gochis, 2011: Evaluating the hydro-estimator satellite rainfall algorithm over a mountainous region. Int. J. Remote Sens., 32, 73157342, doi:10.1080/01431161.2010.523028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 48 48 13
PDF Downloads 31 31 12

Temporal Downscaling and Statistical Analysis of Rainfall across a Topographic Transect in Northwest Mexico

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
  • | 2 School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
  • | 3 National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
  • | 4 Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

In this study a temporal statistical downscaling scheme of rainfall is calibrated using observations from 2007 to 2010 at eight sites located along a 14-km topographic transect of 784 m in elevation in northwest Mexico. For this purpose, the rainfall statistical properties over a wide range of temporal scales (3 months–1 min) for the summer (July–September) and winter (November–March) seasons are first analyzed. Rainfall accumulation is found not to be significantly correlated with elevation in either season, and a strong diurnal cycle is found to be present only in summer, peaking in the late afternoon. Winter rainfall events are highly correlated between individual stations across the transect even at short aggregation times (<30 min), and summer storms are more localized in space and time. Spectral and scale invariance analyses showed the presence of three (two) scaling regimes in summer (winter), which are associated with typical meteorological phenomena of the corresponding time scales (frontal systems and relatively isolated convective systems). These analyses formed the basis for calibrating a temporal downscaling model to disaggregate daily precipitation to hourly resolution in the summer season, based on scale invariance and multifractal theory. In this downscaling scheme, a modulation function was used to reproduce the time heterogeneity introduced by the diurnal cycle. The model showed adequate performances in reproducing the small-scale observed precipitation variability. Results of this work are useful for the interpretation of storm-generation mechanisms in the region, and for creating hourly rainfall time series from daily rainfall data, obtained from observations or simulated by climate, meteorological, or other statistical models.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Giuseppe Mascaro, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, ISTB4, Bldg. 75, Rm. 778b, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004. E-mail: gmascaro@asu.edu

Abstract

In this study a temporal statistical downscaling scheme of rainfall is calibrated using observations from 2007 to 2010 at eight sites located along a 14-km topographic transect of 784 m in elevation in northwest Mexico. For this purpose, the rainfall statistical properties over a wide range of temporal scales (3 months–1 min) for the summer (July–September) and winter (November–March) seasons are first analyzed. Rainfall accumulation is found not to be significantly correlated with elevation in either season, and a strong diurnal cycle is found to be present only in summer, peaking in the late afternoon. Winter rainfall events are highly correlated between individual stations across the transect even at short aggregation times (<30 min), and summer storms are more localized in space and time. Spectral and scale invariance analyses showed the presence of three (two) scaling regimes in summer (winter), which are associated with typical meteorological phenomena of the corresponding time scales (frontal systems and relatively isolated convective systems). These analyses formed the basis for calibrating a temporal downscaling model to disaggregate daily precipitation to hourly resolution in the summer season, based on scale invariance and multifractal theory. In this downscaling scheme, a modulation function was used to reproduce the time heterogeneity introduced by the diurnal cycle. The model showed adequate performances in reproducing the small-scale observed precipitation variability. Results of this work are useful for the interpretation of storm-generation mechanisms in the region, and for creating hourly rainfall time series from daily rainfall data, obtained from observations or simulated by climate, meteorological, or other statistical models.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Corresponding author address: Giuseppe Mascaro, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, ISTB4, Bldg. 75, Rm. 778b, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004. E-mail: gmascaro@asu.edu
Save