• Ackley, S. F., and M. K. Templeton, 1979: Computer modeling of atmospheric ice accretion. CRREL Rep. 79-4, 39 pp.

  • American Meteorological Society, 2020: Drizzle. Glossary of Meteorology, accessed 2 March 2020, http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Drizzle.

  • Bennett, I., 1959: Glaze: Its meteorology and climatology, geographical distribution, and economic effects. Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center Tech. Rep. EP-15, 234 pp.

  • Call, D. A., 2010: Changes in ice storm impacts over time: 1886–2000. Wea. Climate Soc., 2, 2335, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009WCAS1013.1.

  • Campbell, J., 2016: Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Daily mean temperature data, 1955-present. Environmental Data Initiative, accessed 7 February 2020, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/5885076607dd57101dfd6129758d5adc.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A., 2003: Characteristics of ice storms in the United States. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 630639, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0630:COISIT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A., and T. G. Creech, 2003: Sources of data on freezing rain and resulting damages. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 15141518, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1514:SODOFR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A., and T. R. Karl, 2003: Temporal and spatial variations of freezing rain in the contiguous United States: 1948–2000. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 13021315, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1302:TASVOF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cifelli, R., N. Doesken, P. Kennedy, L. D. Carey, S. A. Rutledge, C. Gimmestad, and T. Depue, 2005: The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow network: Informal education for scientists and citizens. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 10691078, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-86-8-1069.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cortinas, J. V., Jr., B. C. Bernstein, C. C. Robbins, and J. W. Strapp, 2004: An analysis of freezing rain, freezing drizzle, and ice pellets across the United States and Canada: 1976–90. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 377390, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0377:AAOFRF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeGaetano, A. T., 2000: Climatic perspectives and impacts of the 1998 northern New York and New England ice storm. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 237254, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<0237:CPAIOT>2.3.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan, C., and X. Jiang, 2018: Analysis of the icing accretion performance of conductors and its normalized characterization method of icing degree for various ice types in natural environments. Energies, 11, 2678, https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102678.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fikke, S., and Coauthors, 2006: COST 727: Atmospheric icing on structures—Measurements and data collection on icing: State of the Art. MeteoSwiss Publ. 75, 110 pp., https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/meetings/Surface/ET-STMT-2/COST-727-report_MCH-V75.pdf.

  • Fu, P., M. Farzaneh, and G. Bouchard, 2006: Two-dimensional modelling of the ice accretion process on transmission line wires and conductors. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 46, 132146, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.06.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gay, D. A., and R. E. Davis, 1993: Freezing rain and sleet climatology of the southeastern USA. Climate Res., 3, 209220, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr003209.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Groisman, P. Ya., O. N. Bulygina, X. Yin, R. S. Vose, S. K. Gulev, I. Hanssen-Bauer, and E. Førland, 2016: Recent changes in the frequency of freezing precipitation in North America and northern Eurasia. Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 045007, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/045007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gyakum, J. R., and P. J. Roebber, 2001: The 1998 Ice Storm—Analysis of a planetary-scale event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 29832997, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2983:TISAOA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Homola, M. C., P. J. Nicklasson, and P. A. Sundsbø, 2006: Ice sensors for wind turbines. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 46, 125131, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.06.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houlton, B. Z., C. T. Driscoll, T. J. Fahey, G. E. Likens, P. M. Groffman, E. S. Bernhardt, and D. C. Buso, 2003: Nitrogen dynamics in ice storm-damaged forest ecosystems: Implications for nitrogen limitation theory. Ecosystems, 6, 431443, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-002-0198-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huffman, G. J., and G. A. Norman, 1988: The supercooled warm rain process and the specification of freezing precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 21722182, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2172:TSWRPA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyslop, N. P., and W. H. White, 2009: Estimating precision using duplicate measurements. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 59, 10321039, https://doi.org/10.3155/1047-3289.59.9.1032.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irland, L. C., 1998: Ice storm 1998 and the forests of the Northeast: A preliminary assessment. J. For., 96, 3240, https://doi.org/10.1093/jof/96.9.32.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Irland, L. C., 2000: Ice storms and forest impacts. Sci. Total Environ., 262, 231242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00525-8.

  • ISO, 2017: Atmospheric icing of structures. International Organization for Standardization ISO Standard 12494, 58 pp., https://www.iso.org/standard/72443.html.

  • Jones, K. F., 1996: Ice accretion in freezing rain. CRREL Rep. 96-2, 23 pp., https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a310659.pdf.

  • Jones, K. F., 1998: A simple model for freezing rain ice loads. Atmos. Res., 46, 8797, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8095(97)00053-7.

  • Jones, K. F., and N. D. Mulherin, 1998: An evaluation of the severity of the January 1998 ice storm in northern New England. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FEMA Region 1 Rep., 66 pp.

  • Jones, K. F., R. Thorkildson, and J. N. Lott, 2002: The development of a U.S. climatology of extreme ice loads. NOAA National Climatic Data Center Tech. Rep. 2002-01, 23 pp., https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1061/40642(253)2.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kramer, C. Y., 1956: Extension of multiple range tests to group means with unequal numbers of replications. Biometrics, 12, 307310, https://doi.org/10.2307/3001469.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laflamme, J., 1995: Spatial variation of extreme values for freezing rain. Atmos. Res., 36, 195206, https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8095(94)00035-C.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laforte, J. L., M. A. Allaire, and J. Laflamme, 1998: State-of-the-art on power line de-icing. Atmos. Res., 46, 143158, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8095(97)00057-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landolt, S. D., J. S. Lave, D. Jacobson, A. Gaydos, S. DiVito, and D. Porter, 2019: The impacts of automation on present weather–type observing capabilities across the conterminous United States. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 58, 26992715, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0170.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levene, H., 1960: Robust tests for equality of variances. Contributions to Probability and Statistics, I. Olkin, Ed., Stanford University Press, 278–292.

  • Likens, G. E., B. K. Dresser, and D. C. Buso, 2004: Short-term temperature response in forest floor and soil to ice storm disturbance in a northern hardwood forest. North. J. Appl. For., 21, 209219, https://doi.org/10.1093/njaf/21.4.209.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Makkonen, L., 1998: Modeling power line icing in freezing precipitation. Atmos. Res., 46, 131142, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8095(97)00056-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Makkonen, L., 2000: Models for the growth of rime, glaze, icicles and wet snow on structures. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 358A, 29132939, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2000.0690.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Makkonen, L., and J. R. Stallabrass, 1987: Experiments on the cloud droplet collision efficiency of cylinders. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 14061411, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<1406:EOTCDC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McComber, P., 1983: Numerical simulation of ice accretion on cables. First Int. Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures, CRREL Special Rep. 83-17, 51–58.

  • Mughal, U. N., M. Virk, and M. Y. Mustafa, 2016: State of the art review of atmospheric icing sensors. Sens. Transducers, 198, 215.

  • Myers, T. G., and J. P. F. Charpin, 2004: A mathematical model for atmospheric ice accretion and water flow on a cold surface. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 47, 54835500, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2004.06.037.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagel, T. A., D. Firm, D. Rozenbergar, and M. Kobal, 2016: Patterns and drivers of ice storm damage in temperate forests of central Europe. Eur. J. For. Res., 135, 519530, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-016-0950-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NWS, 2019: WFO Winter Weather Products Specification. National Weather Service Instruction 10-513, 50 pp., https://www.nws.noaa.gov/directives/sym/pd01005013curr.pdf.

  • Poots, G., 1996: Ice and Snow Accretion on Structures. John Wiley and Sons, 338 pp.

  • Rauber, R. M., L. S. Olthoff, M. K. Ramamurthy, and K. E. Kunkel, 2000: The relative importance of warm rain and melting processes in freezing precipitation events. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 11851195, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1185:TRIOWR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rauber, R. M., L. S. Olthoff, M. K. Ramamurthy, D. Miller, and K. E. Kunkel, 2001: A synoptic weather pattern and sounding-based climatology of freezing precipitation in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 17241747, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1724:ASWPAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reges, H. W., N. Doesken, J. Turner, N. Newman, A. Bergantino, and Z. Schwalbe, 2016: CoCoRaHS: The evolution and accomplishments of a volunteer rain gauge network. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 18311846, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00213.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhoads, A. G., and Coauthors, 2002: Effects of an intense ice storm on the structure of a northern hardwood forest. Can. J. For. Res., 32, 17631775, https://doi.org/10.1139/x02-089.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rustad, L. E., and J. L. Campbell, 2012: A novel ice storm manipulation experiment in a northern hardwood forest. Can. J. For. Res., 42, 18101818, https://doi.org/10.1139/x2012-120.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryerson, C. C., and A. C. Ramsay, 2007: Quantitative ice accretion information from the automated surface observing system. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46, 14231437, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2535.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, K. J., and B. L. Barjenbruch, 2016: Analysis of ice-to-liquid ratios during freezing rain and the development of an ice accumulation model. Wea. Forecasting, 31, 10411060, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-15-0118.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SAS Institute, 2012: SAS Version 9.4. SAS Institute, Inc.

  • Shapiro, S. S., and M. B. Wilk, 1965: An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52, 591611, https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A. B., and R. W. Katz, 2013: US billion-dollar weather and climate disasters: Data sources, trends, accuracy and biases. Nat. Hazards, 67, 387410, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0566-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, R. E., and P. King, 1987: Freezing precipitation in winter storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 12701280, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1270:FPIWS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szilder, K., 2018: Theoretical and experimental study of ice accretion due to freezing rain on an inclined cylinder. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 150, 2534, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.02.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tattelman, P., 1982: An objective method for measuring surface ice accretion. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 599612, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1982)021<0599:AOMFMS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tobin, D. M., M. R. Kumjian, and A. W. Black, 2019: Characteristics of recent vehicle-related fatalities during active precipitation in the United States. Wea. Climate Soc., 11, 935952, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-18-0110.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 2019: Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Daily precipitation standard rain gage measurements, 1956-present. Environmental Data Initiative, accessed 7 February 2020, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/c9dc21212a3af50216f2db706f059714.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Virk, M. S., 2017: Ice accretion on circular cylinder in relation to its diameter. Wind Eng., 41, 5561, https://doi.org/10.1177/0309524X16675247.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Virk, M. S., M. Y. Mustafa, and Q. Hamdan, 2011: Atmospheric ice accretion measurement techniques. Int. J. Multiphys., 5, 229241, https://doi.org/10.1260/1750-9548.5.3.229.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Virk, M. S., U. M. Mughal, and G. Polanco, 2015: Atmospheric ice accretion on non-rotating vertical circular cylinder. World J. Eng. Technol., 3, 284289, https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2015.33C042.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zarnani, A., P. Musilek, X. Shi, X. Ke, H. He, and R. Greiner, 2012: Learning to predict ice accretion on electric power lines. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., 25, 609617, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2011.11.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, B., and Coauthors, 2011: The great 2008 Chinese ice storm: Its socioeconomic–ecological impact and sustainability lessons learned. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 4760, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010BAMS2857.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 80 80 11
Full Text Views 24 24 8
PDF Downloads 23 23 8

A Comparison of Low-Cost Collector Configurations for Quantifying Ice Accretion

View More View Less
  • 1 USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Durham, New Hampshire
  • 2 Hubbard Brook Research Foundation, Woodstock, Vermont
  • 3 CoCoRaHS, Colorado Climate Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • 4 USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania
  • 5 USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, North Woodstock, New Hampshire
  • 6 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York
  • 7 NOAA/National Weather Service, Valley, Nebraska
  • 8 Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire
  • 9 NOAA/National Weather Service, Grand Junction, Colorado
  • 10 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Northern Vermont University, Lyndon, Vermont
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Ice storms are important winter weather events that can have substantial environmental, economic, and social impacts. Mapping and assessment of damage after these events could be improved by making ice accretion measurements at a greater number of sites than is currently available. There is a need for low-cost collectors that can be distributed broadly in volunteer observation networks; however, use of low-cost collectors necessitates understanding of how collector characteristics and configurations influence measurements of ice accretion. A study was conducted at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire that involved spraying water over passive ice collectors during freezing conditions to simulate ice storms of different intensity. The collectors consisted of plates composed of four different materials and installed horizontally; two different types of wires strung horizontally; and rods of three different materials, with three different diameters, and installed at three different inclinations. Results showed that planar ice thickness on plates was 2.5–3 times as great as the radial ice thickness on rods or wires, which is consistent with expectations based on theory and empirical evidence from previous studies. Rods mounted on an angle rather than horizontally reduced the formation of icicles and enabled more consistent measurements. Results such as these provide much needed information for comparing ice accretion data. Understanding of relationships among collector configurations could be refined further by collecting data from natural ice storms under a broader range of weather conditions.

Corresponding author: John Campbell, john.campbell2@usda.gov

Abstract

Ice storms are important winter weather events that can have substantial environmental, economic, and social impacts. Mapping and assessment of damage after these events could be improved by making ice accretion measurements at a greater number of sites than is currently available. There is a need for low-cost collectors that can be distributed broadly in volunteer observation networks; however, use of low-cost collectors necessitates understanding of how collector characteristics and configurations influence measurements of ice accretion. A study was conducted at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire that involved spraying water over passive ice collectors during freezing conditions to simulate ice storms of different intensity. The collectors consisted of plates composed of four different materials and installed horizontally; two different types of wires strung horizontally; and rods of three different materials, with three different diameters, and installed at three different inclinations. Results showed that planar ice thickness on plates was 2.5–3 times as great as the radial ice thickness on rods or wires, which is consistent with expectations based on theory and empirical evidence from previous studies. Rods mounted on an angle rather than horizontally reduced the formation of icicles and enabled more consistent measurements. Results such as these provide much needed information for comparing ice accretion data. Understanding of relationships among collector configurations could be refined further by collecting data from natural ice storms under a broader range of weather conditions.

Corresponding author: John Campbell, john.campbell2@usda.gov
Save