Integrated Shipboard Measurements of the Marine Boundary Layer

C. W. Fairall NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by C. W. Fairall in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A. B. White NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by A. B. White in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
J. B. Edson Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Search for other papers by J. B. Edson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
J. E. Hare Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Search for other papers by J. E. Hare in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

The NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory air–sea interaction group and collaborators at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have developed a seagoing measurement system suitable for mounting aboard ships. During its development, it was deployed on three different ships and recently completed three cruises in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment as well as two cruises off the west coast of the United States. The system includes tower-mounted micrometeorological sensors for direct covariance flux measurements and a variety of remote sensors for profiling winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence. A sonic anemometer/thermometer and a fast-response infrared hygrometer are used for turbulent fluxes. Winds are obtained from a stabilized Doppler radar (wind profiler) and a Doppler sodar. Returned power and Doppler width from these systems are used to deduce profiles of small-scale turbulence. A lidar ceilometer and a microwave radiometer are used to obtain cloud properties. Radiative fluxes are measured with standard pyranometers and pyrgeometers. A conventional rawinsonde system gives intermittent reference soundings. The system is used to study surface fluxes, boundary layer dynamics, cloud–radiative interactions, and entrainment. It has also proven useful in satellite calibration/validations. Following a description of the systems and methods, various examples of data and results are given from recent deployments in the North Atlantic, off the United States west coast, and in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Corresponding author address: Dr. C. W. Fairall, NOAA/ERL/ETL, R/E/ET7, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.

Email: cwf@etl.noaa.gov

Abstract

The NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory air–sea interaction group and collaborators at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have developed a seagoing measurement system suitable for mounting aboard ships. During its development, it was deployed on three different ships and recently completed three cruises in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment as well as two cruises off the west coast of the United States. The system includes tower-mounted micrometeorological sensors for direct covariance flux measurements and a variety of remote sensors for profiling winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence. A sonic anemometer/thermometer and a fast-response infrared hygrometer are used for turbulent fluxes. Winds are obtained from a stabilized Doppler radar (wind profiler) and a Doppler sodar. Returned power and Doppler width from these systems are used to deduce profiles of small-scale turbulence. A lidar ceilometer and a microwave radiometer are used to obtain cloud properties. Radiative fluxes are measured with standard pyranometers and pyrgeometers. A conventional rawinsonde system gives intermittent reference soundings. The system is used to study surface fluxes, boundary layer dynamics, cloud–radiative interactions, and entrainment. It has also proven useful in satellite calibration/validations. Following a description of the systems and methods, various examples of data and results are given from recent deployments in the North Atlantic, off the United States west coast, and in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Corresponding author address: Dr. C. W. Fairall, NOAA/ERL/ETL, R/E/ET7, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.

Email: cwf@etl.noaa.gov

Save
  • Alados-Arboledas, L., J. Vida, and J. I. Jimenez, 1988: Effects of solar radiation on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,5, 666–670.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Albrecht, B. A., and S. K. Cox, 1977: Procedures for improving pyrgeometer performance. J. Appl. Meteor.,16, 188–197.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, C. W. Fairall, D. W.Thomson, A. B. White, and J. B. Snider, 1990: Surface-based remote sensing of the observed and the adiabatic liquid water content of stratocumulus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett.,17, 89–92.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Axford, D. N., 1968: On the accuracy of wind measurements using an inertial platform in an aircraft and an example of a measurement of the vertical mesostructure of the atmosphere. J. Appl. Meteor.,7, 645–666.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Blanc, T. V., 1985: Variation of bulk-derived surface flux, stability, and roughness results due to the use of different transfer coefficient schemes. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 650–669.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, 1986: The effect of inaccuracies in weather-ship data on bulk-derived estimates of flux, stability, and sea-surface roughness. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,3, 12–26.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, 1987: Accuracy of bulk-method-determined flux, stability, and sea surface roughness. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 3867–3876.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Brost, R. A., J. C. Wyngaard, and D. H. Lenschow, 1982: Marine stratocumulus layers. Part II: Turbulence budgets. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 818–831.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Browning, K. A., 1994: Survey of perceived priority issues in the parameterizations of cloud-related processes in GCMs. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,120, 483–487.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Brutsaert, W., 1982: Evaporation into the Atmosphere. D. Reidel, 299 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Businger, J. A., 1986: Evaluation of the accuracy with which dry deposition can be measured with current micrometeorological techniques. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,25, 1100–1123.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and S. P. Oncley, 1990: Flux measurements with conditional sampling. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,7, 349–352.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cerni, T. A., D. A. Hanschulz, L. D. Nelson, and D. Rottner, 1987: An atmospheric infrared hygrometer. Preprints, Proc. Sixth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 205–208.

  • Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,81, 639.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chertock, B., C. W. Fairall, and A. B. White, 1993: Surface-based measurements and satellite retrievals of broken cloud properties in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 18 489–18 500.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Clayson, C. A., J. A. Curry, and C. W. Fairall, 1996: Evaluation of turbulent fluxes at the ocean surface using surface renewal theory. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 28 503–28 513.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, J. W., 1974: Three-dimensional numerical study of turbulence in an entraining mixed layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,7, 199–226.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Donelan, M. A., 1990: Air–sea interactions. The Sea: Ocean Engineering Science, Vol. 9, E. D. Goldberg and Coeditors, Wiley-Interscience, 239–292.

  • Ecklund, W. L., D. A. Carter, and B. B. Balsley, 1988: A UHF profiler for the boundary layer: Brief description and initial results. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,5, 432–441.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Edson, J. B., C. W. Fairall, P. G. Mestayer, and S. E. Larsen, 1991: A study of the inertial-dissipation method for computing air–sea fluxes. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 10 689–10 711.

  • Fairall, C. W., 1984: Interpretation of eddy-correlation measurements of particulate deposition and aerosol flux. Atmos. Environ.,18,1329–1337.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, 1987: Similarity theories and microturbulence in the atmospheric mixed layer. Dynamics of the Oceanic Mixed Layer, Proceedings of the Fourth Hawaiian Winter Workshop, P. Muller and D. Henderson, Eds., Hawaiian Institute of Geophysics Special Publications, 265–291.

  • ——, and S. E. Larsen, 1986: Inertial-dissipation methods and turbulent fluxes at the air–ocean interface. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,34, 287–301.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and R. A. Markson, 1987: Mesoscale variations in surface stress, heat fluxes, and drag coefficient in the marginal ice zone during the 1983 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 6921–6932.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and G. S. Young, 1991: A field evaluation of shipboard performance of an infrared hygrometer. Preprints, Seventh Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 311–315.

  • ——, and M. McPhaden, 1993: A ship-buoy comparison of bulk meteorological measurements and implications for surface flux estimates. Extended Abstracts, Third Scientific Meeting of the Oceanography Society, Seattle, WA, Oceanogr. Soc., 51–52.

  • ——, and J. B. Edson, 1994: Recent measurements of the dimensionless turbulent kinetic energy dissipation function over the ocean. Preprints, Second Int. Conf. on Air–Sea Interaction and Meteorology and Oceanography of the Coastal Zone, Lisbon, Portugal, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 224–225.

  • ——, ——, S. E. Larsen, and P. G. Mestayer, 1990: Inertial-dissipation air–sea flux measurements: A prototype system using real-time spectral computations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,7, 425–453.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, E. F. Bradley, D. P. Rogers, J. B. Edson, and G. S. Young, 1996: Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean–Global Atmospheric Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 3747–3764.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Frisch, A. S., C. W. Fairall, and J. B. Snider, 1995: On the measurement of stratus cloud and drizzle parameters with a Kα-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2788–2799.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fujitani, T., 1985: Method of turbulent flux measurement on a ship by using a stable platform system. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,36, 157–170.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Garratt, J. R., 1992: The Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.

  • Gautier, C., G. Diak, and S. Masse, 1980: A simple physical model to estimate incident solar radiation at the surface from GEOS satellite data. J. Appl. Meteor.,19, 1005–1012.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Geernaert, G. L., 1990: Bulk parameterizations for the wind stress and heat fluxes. Surface Waves and Fluxes, Vol. I, G. L. Geernaert and W. J. Plant, Eds., Kluwer, 91–172.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Godfrey, J. S., and A. C. M. Beljaars, 1991: On the turbulent fluxes of buoyancy, heat, and moisture at the air–sea interface at low wind speeds. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 22 043–22 048.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gosnell, R., C. W. Fairall, and P. J. Webster, 1995: The surface sensible heat flux due to rain in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 18 437–18 442.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hare, J. E., J. B. Edson, and C. W. Fairall, 1992: Progress on real-timecovariance measurements of air–sea fluxes from ships and buoys. Preprints, 10th Symp. on Turbulence and Diffusion, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 281–284.

  • Hasse, L., 1971: The sea surface temperature deviation and heat flow at the air–sea interface. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,1, 368–379.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hogg, D. C., F. O. Guiraud, J. B. Snider, M. T. Decker, and E. R. Westwater, 1983: A steerable dual-channnel microwave radiometer for measurement of water vapor and liquid in the atmosphere. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 789–806.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kaimal, J. C., J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and O. R. Cote, 1972: Spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,98, 563–589.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, ——, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, S. J. Caughey, and C. J. Readings, 1976: Turbulence structure in the convective boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 2152–2169.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, S. F. Clifford, and R. J. Laitaitis, 1989: Effect of finite sampling on atmospheric spectra. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,47, 337–347.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Katsaros, K. B., 1990: Parameterization schemes and models for estimating the surface radiation budget. Surface Waves and Fluxes, Vol. II, G. L. Geernaert and W. J. Plant, Eds., Kluwer, 91–172.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and J. E. DeVault, 1986: On irradiance measurement errors at sea due to tilt of pyranometers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,3, 740–745.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kraus, E. B., and J. A. Businger, 1994: Atmosphere–Ocean Interaction. Oxford University Press, 352 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kristensen, L. K., J. Mann, and S. P. Oncley, 1997: How close is close enough when measuring scalar fluxes with displaced sensors? J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., in press.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Large, W. G., and S. Pond, 1981: Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 324–336.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and ——, 1982: Sensible and latent heat flux measurements over the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,12, 464–482.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen, S. E., J. B. Edson, C. W. Fairall, and P. G. Mestayer, 1993: Measurement of temperature spectra by a sonic anemometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,10, 345–354.

  • Ledvina, D. V., G. S. Young, R. A. Miller, and C. W. Fairall, 1993: The effect of averaging on bulk estimates of heat and momentum fluxes for the tropical western Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 20 211–20 217.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lenschow, D. H., 1973: Two examples of planetary boundary layer modification over the Great Lakes. J. Atmos. Sci.,30, 568–581.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, 1986: Probing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 269 pp.

  • ——, and L. K. Kristensen, 1985: Uncorrelated noise in turbulence measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,2, 68–81.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and P. Spyers-Duran, 1987: Measurements techniques: Air motion sensing. NCAR Bulletin 23, 361 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80303.].

  • Liu, W. T., 1990: Remote sensing of surface turbulence heat flux. Surface Waves and Fluxes, Vol. II, G. L. Geernaert and W. J. Plant, Eds., Kluwer, 293–310.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, K. B.Katsaros, and J. A. Businger, 1979: Bulk parameterization of the air–sea exchange of heat and water vapor including the molecular constraints at the interface. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 1722–1735.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • MacWhorter, M. A., and R. A. Weller, 1991: Error in measurements of incoming solar radiation made from ships and buoys. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,8, 108–117.

  • Mahrt, L., D. Vickers, J. Howell, J. Hojstrup, M. Courtney, J. M. Wilczak, J. B. Edson, and J. Hare, 1996: Surface drag coefficients in RASEX. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 14 327–14 335.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Moeng, C.-H., 1984: A large-eddy simulation model for the study of planetary boundary-layer turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 2052–2062.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, S. Shen, and D. A. Randall, 1992: Physical processes with the nocturnal stratus-topped boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 2384–2401.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mortensen, N. G., 1994: Flow response characteristics of the Kaijo Denki omni-directional sonic anemometer. Riso National Laboratory Rep. Riso-R-704(EN), 31 pp.

  • Nichols, S., 1984: The dynamics of stratocumulus: Aircraft observations and comparisons with a mixed layer model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,110, 783–820.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Oncley, S. P., 1989: Flux parameterization techniques in the atmospheric surface layer. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 202 pp. [Available from Dept. Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92716.].

  • Oost, W. A., C. W. Fairall, J. B. Edson, S. D. Smith, R. J. Anderson, J. A. B. Wills, K. B. Katsaros, and J. DeCosmo, 1994: Flow distortion calculations and their application in HEXMAX. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,11, 366–386.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Panofsky, H. A., and J. A. Dutton, 1984: Atmospheric Turbulence. Wiley-Interscience, 397 pp.

  • Pattey, E., R. L. Desjardins, and P. Rochette, 1993: Accuracy of the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique, evaluated using CO2 flux measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,66, 341–355.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Paulson, C. A., 1970: The mathematical representation of windspeed and temperature profiles in the unstable atmospheric surface layer. J. Appl. Meteor.,9, 857–861.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, and J. J. Simpson, 1981: The temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,86, 11 044–11 504.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ruffieux, D., P. O. G. Persson, C. W. Fairall, and D. E. Wolfe, 1995: Ice pack and lead surface energy budgets during LEADEX 1992. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 4593–4612.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Saunders, P. M., 1967: The temperature at the ocean–air interface. J. Atmos. Sci.,24, 269–273.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Schmitt, K. F., C. A. Friehe, and C. H. Gibson, 1978: Humidity sensitivity of atmospheric temperature sensors by salt contamination. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,8, 141–161.

  • Schotanus, P., F. T. M. Nieuwstadt, and R. A. R. deBruin, 1983: Temperature measurement with a sonic anemometer and its application to heat and moisture fluxes. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,26, 81–93.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Skupniewicz, C. E., and K. L. Davidson, 1991: Hot-film measurements from a small buoy: Surface wind stress estimates using the inertial dissipation method. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,8, 309–321.

  • Smith, S. D., 1988: Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, andwind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 15 467–15 472.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Stage, S. A., and J. A. Businger, 1980: A model for entrainment into a cloud-topped marine boundary layer. Part II: Discussion of model behavior and comparison with other cloud models. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 2230–2242.

  • Tanner, C. B., and G. W. Thurtell, 1969: Anemoclinometer measurements of Reynolds stress and heat transport in the atmospheric surface layer. University of Wisconsin Tech. Rep. ECOM-66-G22-F, 82 pp. [Available from US Army Electronic Command, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, Ft. Huachuca, AZ 85613.].

  • Vogel, C. A., and P. Frenzen, 1992: A new study of the TKE budget in the surface layer. Part II: The dissipation function and divergent transport terms. Preprints, 10th Symp. on Turbulence and Diffusion, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 161–164.

  • Webster, P. J., C. A. Clayson, and J. A. Curry, 1996: Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific. J. Climate,9, 1712–1730.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • White, A. B., and C. W. Fairall, 1995: Wind profiler measurements of scalar and velocity microturbulence profiles in the convective atmospheric boundary layer. Preprints, 11th Symp. on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Charlotte, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 548–551.

  • ——, ——, and D. W. Thomson, 1991: Radar observations of humidity variability in and above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,8, 639–658.

  • ——, ——, and J. B. Snider, 1995: Surface-based remote sensing of marine boundary-layer cloud properties. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2827–2838.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, ——, A. S. Frisch, B. W. Orr, and J. B. Snider, 1996: Recent radar measurements of turbulence and microphysical parameters in clouds. Atmos. Res.,40, 177–221.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wick, G. A., W. J. Emery, L. H. Kantha, and P. Schluessel, 1996: The behavior of the bulk-skin sea surface temperature difference under varying wind speed and heat flux. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 1969–1988.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Willis, G. E., and J. W. Deardorff, 1974: A laboratory model of the unstable planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1297–1307.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wyngaard, J. C., 1973: On surface-layer turbulence. Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101–149.

  • ——, I. Izumi, and S. A. Collins, 1971: Behavior of the refractive index structure parameter near the ground. J. Opt. Soc. Amer.,61, 1646–1650.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Yelland, M. J., P. K. Taylor, I. E. Consterdine, and M. H. Smith, 1994: The use of the inertial dissipation technique for shipboard wind stress determination. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,11, 1093–1108.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Young, G. S., D. R. Ledvina, and C. W. Fairall, 1992: Influence of precipitating convection on the surface energy budget observed during a Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere pilot cruise in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 9595–9603.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, S. M. Perugini, and C. W. Fairall, 1995: Convective wakes in the equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 110–123.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 759 154 13
PDF Downloads 439 101 8