Scalability of Parallel Gridpoint Limited-Area Atmospheric Models. Part I: Explicit Time-Integration Schemes

Roar Skålin Department of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Search for other papers by Roar Skålin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

A performance model of parallel domain decompositions for explicit gridpoint limited-area atmospheric models is developed, and the parallel scalability is analyzed. Given a set of reasonable assumptions, a two-dimensional horizontal decomposition is shown to be scalable. The results from the performance model are consistent with numerical experiments based on a parallel message passing implementation of the limited-area model HIRLAM (High Resolution Limited Area Model). However, the experiments reveal that load imbalance may lead to performance degradation. A full semi-implicit limited-area atmospheric model is considered in a companion paper.

Corresponding author address: Roar Skålin, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.

Email: Roar.Skaalin@itea.ntnu.no

Abstract

A performance model of parallel domain decompositions for explicit gridpoint limited-area atmospheric models is developed, and the parallel scalability is analyzed. Given a set of reasonable assumptions, a two-dimensional horizontal decomposition is shown to be scalable. The results from the performance model are consistent with numerical experiments based on a parallel message passing implementation of the limited-area model HIRLAM (High Resolution Limited Area Model). However, the experiments reveal that load imbalance may lead to performance degradation. A full semi-implicit limited-area atmospheric model is considered in a companion paper.

Corresponding author address: Roar Skålin, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.

Email: Roar.Skaalin@itea.ntnu.no

Save
  • Barros, S. R. M., and T. Kauranne, 1993: Scalability estimates of parallel spectral atmospheric models. Parallel Supercomputing in Atmospheric Science, G.-R. Hoffman and T. Kauranne, Eds., World Scientific, 312–328.

  • ———, and ———, 1994: On the parallelization of global spectral weather models. Parallel Comput.,20, 1335–1356.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bjørge, D., 1995: Implementation of the semi-implicit scheme in a message passing version of HIRLAM. Coming of Age, G.-R. Hoffman and N. Kreitz, Eds., World Scientific, 75–90.

  • ———, and R. Skålin, 1995: PARLAM—The parallel HIRLAM version at DNMI. Research Rep. 27, 46 pp. [Available from Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, N-0313 Oslo, Norway.].

  • Cray Research, Inc., 1994: SHMEM User’s Guide SN-2516 1.1, 30 pp. [Available from Cray Research, Inc., 2360 Pilot Knob Rd., Mendota Heights, MN 55120.].

  • Drake, J., and I. Foster, Eds., 1995: Climate and weather modeling. Parallel Comput.,21, 1537–1724.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, I., 1995: Designing and Building Parallel Programs. Addison-Wesley, 381 pp.

  • ———, W. Gropp, and R. Stevens, 1992: The parallel scalability of the spectral transform method. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 835–850.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ———, B. Toonen, and P. H. Worley, 1996: Performance of parallel computers for spectral atmospheric models. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,13, 1031–1045.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Grama, A. Y., A. Gupta, and V. Kumar, 1993: Isoefficiency: Measuring the scalability of parallel algorithms and architectures. IEEE Parallel Distributed Technol.,3, 12–21.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gupta, A., and V. Kumar, 1993: Performance properties of large scale parallel systems. J. Par. Distr. Comput.,19, 234–244.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gustafsson, N., Ed., 1992: The HIRLAM 2 final report. HIRLAM Tech. Rep. 9, 126 pp. [Available from SMHI, S-60176 Norrköping, Sweden.].

  • ———, and D. Salmond, 1995: A parallel spectral HIRLAM with the data parallel programming model and with message passing—A comparison. Coming of Age, G.-R. Hoffman and N. Kreitz, Eds., World Scientific, 32–48.

  • Henderson, T., C. Baillie, G. Carr, M. Govett, L. Hart, A. Marroquin, and B. Rodriguez, 1995: Progress towards demonstrating operational capability of massively parallel processors at the Forecast Systems Laboratory. Coming of Age, G.-R. Hoffman and N. Kreitz, Eds., World Scientific, 162–176.

  • Intel Corporation, 1995: Paragon™ System User’s Guide, 412 pp. [Available from Intel Corporation, 15201 N. W. Greenbrier Parkway, Beaverton, OR 97006.].

  • Källén, E., Ed., 1996: HIRLAM Documentation Manual. System 2.5, 241 pp. [Available from SMHI, S-60176 Norrköping, Sweden.].

  • Kauranne, T., J. Oinonen, S. Saarinen, O. Serimaa, and J. Hietaniemi, 1995: The operational HIRLAM 2 model on parallel computers. Coming of Age, G.-R. Hoffman and N. Kreitz, Eds., World Scientific, 63–74.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lie, I., 1994: Splitting of the Helmholtz equation in HIRLAM. FFI/Rep.-94/04048, 10 pp. [Available from NDRE, P.O. Box 25, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway.].

  • Michalakes, J. G., and R. S. Nanjundiah, 1994: Computational load in the model physics of the parallel NCAR Community Climate Model. ANL/MCS-TM-186, 14 pp. [Available from Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439.].

  • ———, T. Canfield, R. Nanjundiah, S. Hammond, and G. Grell, 1995: Parallel implementation, validation, and performance of MM5. Coming of Age, G.-R. Hoffman and N. Kreitz, Eds., World Scientific, 266–276.

  • Schättler, U., and E. Krenzien, 1995: Experiences on porting the “Deutschland-Modell” of DWD to parallel platforms and first results. Coming of Age, G.-R. Hoffman and N. Kreitz, Eds., World Scientific, 223–239.

  • Skålin, R., 1997: Scalability of parallel gridpoint limited-area atmospheric models. Part II: Semi-implicit time-integration schemes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,14, 442–455.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ———, D. Bjørge, N. Gustafsson, I. Lie, and D. Salmond, 1994: Parallelization of HIRLAM on MIMD platforms. Parallel Scientific Computing, J. Dongarra and J. Waśniewski, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 879, Springer-Verlag, 434–457.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tett, S., 1992: Parallel algorithms for atmospheric modelling. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh, 237 pp. [Available from University of Edinburgh, 7–11 Nicolson St., Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland.].

  • Worley, P. W., 1990: The effect of time constraints on scaled speedup. SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.,11, 838–858.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ———, and J. B. Drake, 1992: Parallelizing the spectral transform method. Concurrency: Practice and Experience,4, 269–291.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 178 36 2
PDF Downloads 76 27 1