New Pump Correction for the Brewer–Mast Ozone Sonde: Determination from Experiment and Instrument Intercomparisons

W. Steinbrecht Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg, German Weather Service, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany

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R. Schwarz Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg, German Weather Service, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany

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H. Claude Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg, German Weather Service, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany

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Abstract

Pump efficiency of the Brewer–Mast (B–M) ozone sonde deteriorates significantly at altitudes above 22 km (pressures below 50 hPa). The correction currently used as the WMO standard does not sufficiently account for the efficiency decrease. It is based on laboratory measurements made in 1965. The authors have redetermined pump efficiency for the B–M sonde and found that a much higher pump correction is appropriate. The net effect of the new pump correction, after Dobson normalization to integrated ozone, is a substantial increase of ozone values above 28 km (15 hPa) and a small decrease below. At 6 hPa (34–35 km) ozone values need to be increased by 20%. From 22 to 28 km (50–15 hPa) net corrections are smaller than 4%. Below 16 km (100 hPa) ozone values decrease by 5%–7%. Using the new pump correction, agreement of better than 2%–5% is found with lidar, SAGE II, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sondes, and HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) for the entire altitude range from 16 to 35 km (100–6 hPa). The pump correction currently used in the WMO standard procedure should be updated. Mixing ratio profiles at Hohenpeissenberg indicate that pump efficiency of the B–M sonde has probably not changed over the last 30 years. However, the evidence is not conclusive and this question will have to be addressed in the future. Even if pump efficiency should have changed, negative trends reported by B–M sondes in the lower stratosphere would remain valid and increase by approximately −5% per 20 years. Large positive trends reported in the troposphere would become smaller by the same amount.

Corresponding author address: Dr. W. Steinbrecht, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Albin-Schwaiger-Weg 10, 82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Germany.

Email: wolfgang@mohp.dwd.d400.de

Abstract

Pump efficiency of the Brewer–Mast (B–M) ozone sonde deteriorates significantly at altitudes above 22 km (pressures below 50 hPa). The correction currently used as the WMO standard does not sufficiently account for the efficiency decrease. It is based on laboratory measurements made in 1965. The authors have redetermined pump efficiency for the B–M sonde and found that a much higher pump correction is appropriate. The net effect of the new pump correction, after Dobson normalization to integrated ozone, is a substantial increase of ozone values above 28 km (15 hPa) and a small decrease below. At 6 hPa (34–35 km) ozone values need to be increased by 20%. From 22 to 28 km (50–15 hPa) net corrections are smaller than 4%. Below 16 km (100 hPa) ozone values decrease by 5%–7%. Using the new pump correction, agreement of better than 2%–5% is found with lidar, SAGE II, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sondes, and HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) for the entire altitude range from 16 to 35 km (100–6 hPa). The pump correction currently used in the WMO standard procedure should be updated. Mixing ratio profiles at Hohenpeissenberg indicate that pump efficiency of the B–M sonde has probably not changed over the last 30 years. However, the evidence is not conclusive and this question will have to be addressed in the future. Even if pump efficiency should have changed, negative trends reported by B–M sondes in the lower stratosphere would remain valid and increase by approximately −5% per 20 years. Large positive trends reported in the troposphere would become smaller by the same amount.

Corresponding author address: Dr. W. Steinbrecht, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Albin-Schwaiger-Weg 10, 82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Germany.

Email: wolfgang@mohp.dwd.d400.de

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