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Optimal Filtering of AC Output Anemometers

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  • 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington
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Abstract

The output of pulsed and AC output anemometers suffer from discretization noise when such anemometers are sampled at fast rates (>1 Hz). This paper describes the construction of an optimal filter designed to reduce this noise. By comparing the filtered output from an AC output cup anemometer with a nearby cup anemometer whose output is free from discretization noise, it is shown that the filter significantly reduces the noise. Wind speed time series obtained from the two anemometers are quite similar. Next, deconvolution is applied to the filtered time series to account for the anemometer response. Spectra from the deconvolved time series and a time series measured by a nearby sonic anemometer are compared, and for high-speed flows the spectra from the two instruments match quite well. The time series are also very similar; however, the cup anemometer generally cannot respond to the quick bursts of speed seen by the sonic anemometer. The filtering and deconvolution methods presented here are most appropriate for the high-speed flows relevant to wind energy studies. These methods make it possible to use inexpensive, rugged cup anemometers to measure a high-speed, turbulent wind field up to a frequency of about 5 Hz.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. C. Barnard, Pacific Northwest National Lab, MSIN K-9 30, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352.

Email: jc_barnard@pnl.gov

Abstract

The output of pulsed and AC output anemometers suffer from discretization noise when such anemometers are sampled at fast rates (>1 Hz). This paper describes the construction of an optimal filter designed to reduce this noise. By comparing the filtered output from an AC output cup anemometer with a nearby cup anemometer whose output is free from discretization noise, it is shown that the filter significantly reduces the noise. Wind speed time series obtained from the two anemometers are quite similar. Next, deconvolution is applied to the filtered time series to account for the anemometer response. Spectra from the deconvolved time series and a time series measured by a nearby sonic anemometer are compared, and for high-speed flows the spectra from the two instruments match quite well. The time series are also very similar; however, the cup anemometer generally cannot respond to the quick bursts of speed seen by the sonic anemometer. The filtering and deconvolution methods presented here are most appropriate for the high-speed flows relevant to wind energy studies. These methods make it possible to use inexpensive, rugged cup anemometers to measure a high-speed, turbulent wind field up to a frequency of about 5 Hz.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. C. Barnard, Pacific Northwest National Lab, MSIN K-9 30, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352.

Email: jc_barnard@pnl.gov

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