• Andreas, E. L, 1991: Using scintillation at two wavelengths to measure path-averaged heat fluxes in free convection. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,54, 167–182.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, J. R. Gosz, and C. N. Dahm, 1992: Can long-path FTIR spectroscopy yield gas flux measurements through a variance technique? Atmos. Environ.,26A, 225–233.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Biltoft, C. A., 1989: Field testing of a crosswind scintillometer. Proc. SPIE,1115, 167–178.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Briggs, B. H., G. J. Phillips, and D. H. Shinn, 1950: The analysis of observations on spaced receivers of the fading of radio signals. Proc. Phys. Soc.,63B, 106–121.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • de Bruin, H. A. R., B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, and W. Kohsiek, 1995:The scintillation method tested over a dry vineyard area. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,76, 25–40.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • de Jong, A., and G. de Leeuw, 1997: Low elevation transmission measurements at EOPACE; Part III: Scintillation effects. Proc. SPIE,3125, 135–147.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton, F. D., W. A. Peterson, J. R. Hines, J. J. Drexler, D. B. Soules, A. H. Waldie, and J. A. Qualtrough, 1990: Morphology of atmospheric transparent inhomogeneities. Proc. SPIE,1312, 134–146.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Furger, M., A. Prévôt, L. P. Poggio, J. Dommen, and W. K. Graber, 1997: Observation of ozone transport in a valley in the Swiss Alps. Preprints, 12th Symp. on Boundary Layer and Turbulence, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 512–513.

  • Hill, R. J., 1996: Corrections to Taylor’s frozen turbulence approximation. Atmos. Res.,40, 153–175.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ——, 1997: Algorithms for obtaining atmospheric surface-layer fluxes from scintillation measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,14, 456–467.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, R. S., G. R. Ochs, and S. F. Clifford, 1972: Use of scintillations to measure average wind across a light beam. Appl. Opt.,11, 239–243.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Porch, W. M., W. D. Neff, and C. W. King, 1988: Comparisons of meteorological structure parameters in complex terrain using optical and acoustical techniques. Appl. Opt.,27, 2222–2228.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, T. I., and J. D. Crosby, 1996: Optical scintillometer to measure atmospheric turbulence and runway cross wind. Preprints, Workshop on Wind Shear and Wind Shear Alert Systems, Oklahoma City, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 192–198.

  • ——, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, 1981: Wind measurements by the temporal cross correlation of the optical scintillations. Appl. Opt.,20, 4073–4081.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wotawa, G., and Coauthors, 1996: The EU Research Project VOTALP—Objectives and first results. Proc. 24th Int. Conf. on Alpine Meteorology—ICAM’96, Bled, Slovenia, Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia, 297–303.

  • Wyngaard, J. C., and S. F. Clifford, 1977: Taylor’s hypothesis and high-frequency turbulence spectra. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 922–929.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 112 65 3
PDF Downloads 90 55 4

Scintillometer Wind Measurements over Complex Terrain

View More View Less
  • 1 Atmospheric Pollution Section, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland
  • | 2 U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire
Restricted access

Abstract

Several large-aperture scintillometers were built at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the aim to measure wind over complex terrain. A prototype instrument was tested over flat ground, and the performance of six analyzing techniques was evaluated by comparing them with conventional anemometers. Next, a set of five improved scintillometers was used in an experiment over complex terrain. This experiment represents a unique opportunity for evaluating scintillometer performance by comparing their results to sodar, aircraft, and ground station measurements. The results complement and partly contradict the observations previously published; the so-called peak technique is the most reliable and frequency techniques fail to provide faithful results in many cases. The measurements demonstrate that scintillometry is useful and reliable for wind and turbulence measurements over complex terrain.

* Additional affiliation: Institute for Atmospheric Science, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Markus Furger, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

Email: markus.furger@psi.ch

Abstract

Several large-aperture scintillometers were built at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the aim to measure wind over complex terrain. A prototype instrument was tested over flat ground, and the performance of six analyzing techniques was evaluated by comparing them with conventional anemometers. Next, a set of five improved scintillometers was used in an experiment over complex terrain. This experiment represents a unique opportunity for evaluating scintillometer performance by comparing their results to sodar, aircraft, and ground station measurements. The results complement and partly contradict the observations previously published; the so-called peak technique is the most reliable and frequency techniques fail to provide faithful results in many cases. The measurements demonstrate that scintillometry is useful and reliable for wind and turbulence measurements over complex terrain.

* Additional affiliation: Institute for Atmospheric Science, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Markus Furger, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

Email: markus.furger@psi.ch

Save