An Improved Algorithm for Generating Global Window Brightness Temperatures from Multiple Satellite Infrared Imagery

K. I. Hodges Environmental Systems Science Center, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

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D. W. Chappell Environmental Systems Science Center, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

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G. J. Robinson Environmental Systems Science Center, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

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G. Yang Centre for Global Atmospheric Modeling, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

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Abstract

An improved algorithm for the generation of gridded window brightness temperatures is presented. The primary data source is the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, level B3 data, covering the period from July 1983 to the present. The algorithm takes window brightness, temperatures from multiple satellites, both geostationary and polar orbiting, which have already been navigated and normalized radiometrically to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, and generates 3-hourly global images on a 0.5° by 0.5° latitude–longitude grid. The gridding uses a hierarchical scheme based on spherical kernel estimators. As part of the gridding procedure, the geostationary data are corrected for limb effects using a simple empirical correction to the radiances, from which the corrected temperatures are computed. This is in addition to the application of satellite zenith angle weighting to downweight limb pixels in preference to nearer-nadir pixels. The polar orbiter data are windowed on the target time with temporal weighting to account for the noncontemporaneous nature of the data. Large regions of missing data are interpolated from adjacent processed images using a form of motion compensated interpolation based on the estimation of motion vectors using an hierarchical block matching scheme. Examples are shown of the various stages in the process. Also shown are examples of the usefulness of this type of data in GCM validation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. K. I. Hodges, ESSC Harry Pitt Building, 3 Earley Gate, Whitenights, University of Reading, P.O. Box 238, Reading RG6 6AL, United Kingdom.

Email: kih@mail.herc-essc.ac.uk

Abstract

An improved algorithm for the generation of gridded window brightness temperatures is presented. The primary data source is the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, level B3 data, covering the period from July 1983 to the present. The algorithm takes window brightness, temperatures from multiple satellites, both geostationary and polar orbiting, which have already been navigated and normalized radiometrically to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, and generates 3-hourly global images on a 0.5° by 0.5° latitude–longitude grid. The gridding uses a hierarchical scheme based on spherical kernel estimators. As part of the gridding procedure, the geostationary data are corrected for limb effects using a simple empirical correction to the radiances, from which the corrected temperatures are computed. This is in addition to the application of satellite zenith angle weighting to downweight limb pixels in preference to nearer-nadir pixels. The polar orbiter data are windowed on the target time with temporal weighting to account for the noncontemporaneous nature of the data. Large regions of missing data are interpolated from adjacent processed images using a form of motion compensated interpolation based on the estimation of motion vectors using an hierarchical block matching scheme. Examples are shown of the various stages in the process. Also shown are examples of the usefulness of this type of data in GCM validation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. K. I. Hodges, ESSC Harry Pitt Building, 3 Earley Gate, Whitenights, University of Reading, P.O. Box 238, Reading RG6 6AL, United Kingdom.

Email: kih@mail.herc-essc.ac.uk

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