• Binder, P., and Coauthors, 1995: Mesoscale Alpine Programme: Design proposal. 65 pp. [Available from MAP Data Centre, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.].

  • Bousquet, O., and M. Chong, 1998: A multiple-Doppler synthesis and continuity adjustment technique (MUSCAT) to recover wind components from Doppler radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 343–359.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chong, M., and Coauthors, 2000: Real-time wind synthesis from Doppler radar observations during the Mesoscale Alpine Programme. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,81, 2953–2962.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cosma, S., and E. Richard, 1998: Simulations numériques de l’épisode de précipitations intenses de Brig. Preprints, Atelier de Modélisation de l’Atmosphère, Toulouse, France, Météo-France, 9–12.

  • Georgis, J.-F., F. Roux, and P. H. Hildebrand, 2000: Observation of precipitating systems over complex orography with meteorological Doppler radars: A feasibility study. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,72, 185–202.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kessler, E., 1969: On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulation. Meteor. Monogr., No. 32, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lafore, J.-P., and Coauthors, 1998: The Meso-NH atmospheric simulation system. Part I: Adiabatic formulation and control simulations. Ann. Geophys.,16, 90–109.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Leise, J. A., 1981: A multidimensional scale-telescoped filter and data extension package. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-82, 18 pp. [NTIS PB82-164104.].

  • Liu, J. Y., and H. D. Orville, 1969: Numerical modeling of precipitation and cloud shallow effects on mountain-induced cumuli. J. Atmos. Sci.,26, 1283–1298.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J. S., and W. Mck. Palmer, 1948: The distribution of raindrops with size. J. Meteor.,5, 165–166.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Scialom, G., and Y. Lemaître, 1990: A new analysis for the retrieval of three-dimensional mesoscale wind fields from multiple Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,7, 640–665.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, J., E. Richard, J.-P. Lafore, J.-P. Pinty, N. Asencio, and S. Cosma, 2000: High-resolution non-hydrostatic simulations of flash-flood episodes with grid-nesting and ice-phase parameterization. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,72, 203–221.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tabary, P., and G. Scialom, 2000: MANDOP analysis over complex orography in the context of the MAP experiment. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., submitted.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Yuter, S. A., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1995: Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1941–1963.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 118 118 10
PDF Downloads 15 15 4

A Formulation of the Continuity Equation of MUSCAT for either Flat or Complex Terrain

View More View Less
  • 1 Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, CNRS and Météo-France, Toulouse, France
  • | 2 Laboratoire d’Aérologie, CNRS-UPS, Toulouse, France
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

The Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) involved an ensemble of airborne and ground-based Doppler radars dedicated to the observation of precipitating systems over the Alps. The derivation of the three-dimensional wind fields from the multiple-Doppler synthesis and continuity adjustment technique (MUSCAT) requires that orography-induced air circulation, in particular when solving the mass continuity equation, is taken into account. A formulation of this equation in its flux form is proposed, which has the advantage of applying to either flat or complex terrain and thus eliminating the need to explicitly evaluate the vertical velocity associated with the slope wind at the surface. Pseudo-Doppler observations of a pair of ground-based radars that were operated during MAP, deduced from a modeled pre-MAP case, are used to validate the proposed solution and to investigate the performances of the Doppler wind synthesis above mountainous regions.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Michel Chong, CNRM (CNRS and Météo-France), 42 Av. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex, France.

Email: chong@meteo.fr.

Abstract

The Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) involved an ensemble of airborne and ground-based Doppler radars dedicated to the observation of precipitating systems over the Alps. The derivation of the three-dimensional wind fields from the multiple-Doppler synthesis and continuity adjustment technique (MUSCAT) requires that orography-induced air circulation, in particular when solving the mass continuity equation, is taken into account. A formulation of this equation in its flux form is proposed, which has the advantage of applying to either flat or complex terrain and thus eliminating the need to explicitly evaluate the vertical velocity associated with the slope wind at the surface. Pseudo-Doppler observations of a pair of ground-based radars that were operated during MAP, deduced from a modeled pre-MAP case, are used to validate the proposed solution and to investigate the performances of the Doppler wind synthesis above mountainous regions.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Michel Chong, CNRM (CNRS and Météo-France), 42 Av. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex, France.

Email: chong@meteo.fr.

Save