• Barrett, E. W., and Suomi V. E. , 1949: Preliminary report on temperature measurements by sonic means. J. Meteor, 6 , 273276.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corby, R. E., 1950: Acoustic anemometer–anemoscope. Electronics, 1 (50) 8890.

  • Deyer, A. J., 1981: Flow distortion by supporting structures. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 20 , 243251.

  • Hanafusa, T., Fujitani T. , Korobi Y. , and Mitsuta Y. , 1982: A new type sonic anemometer/thermometer for field operation. Pap. Meteor. Geophys, 33 , 119.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaimal, J. C., 1979: Sonic anemometer measurement of atmospheric turbulence. Proc. Dynamic Flow Conf., Skovlunde, Denmark, DISA Electronic A/S, 551–565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaimal, J. C., and Businger J. A. , 1963: A continuous wave sonic anemometer–thermometer. J. Appl. Meteor, 2 , 156164.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lenschow, D. H., Mann J. , and Kristensen L. , 1994: How long is long enough when measuring fluxes and other turbulence statistics? J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 11 , 661673.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, J., and Lenschow D. H. , 1994: Errors in airborne flux measurements. J. Geophys. Res, 99 , . (D7),. 1451914526.

  • Mortensen, N. G., 1994: Wind measurements for wind energy applications—A review. Proc. 16th British Wind Energy Association Conf., Stirling, Scotland, British Wind Energy Association, 353–361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norment, H. G., 1992: Calculation of Wyngaard turbulence distortion coefficients and turbulence ratios; and influence of instrument-induced wakes on accuracy. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 9 , 505519.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oost, W. A., 1991: Flow distortion by an ellipsoid and its application to the analysis of atmospheric measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 8 , 331340.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schill, U., 1997: Die Variation des gemessenen fühlbaren Wärmestroms über homogenem Gebiet und die Analyse für deren Ursachen. Thesis, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universität Karlsruhe/Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 93 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suomi, V. E., 1957a: Energy budget studies and development of the sonic anemometer for spectrum analysis. AFCRC Tech. Rep. 56-274, Dept. of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, 91 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suomi, V. E., 1957b: Sonic anemometer. Exploring the Atmosphere's First Mile, H. H. Lettau and B. Davidson, Eds., Vol. 1, Pergamon Press, 256–266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vogt, R., 1995: Theorie, technik und analyse der experimentellen Flußbestimmung am beispiel des hartheimer kiefernwaldes. Geographisches Institut der Universität Basel, 101 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von dem Borne, H., 1954: Windmessung auf akustischer Grundlage. Meteor. Rundsch, 11/12 , 217220.

  • Wieringa, J., 1980: A reevaluation of the Kansas mast influence on measurements of stress and cup anemometer overspeeding. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 18 , 411430.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyngaard, J. C., 1981: The effects of probe-induced flow distortion on atmospheric turbulence measurements. J. Appl. Meteor, 20 , 784794.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyngaard, J. C., and Zhang S. F. , 1985: Transducer-shadow effects on turbulence spectra measured by sonic anemometers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 2 , 548558.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, S. F., Wyngaard J. C. , Businger J. A. , and Oncley S. P. , 1986:: Response characteristics of the U.W. sonic anemometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 3 , 315323.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 461 400 15
PDF Downloads 272 200 15

The Influence of the Sensor Design on Wind Measurements with Sonic Anemometer Systems

View More View Less
  • 1 Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universität Karlsruhe/Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Responses of Kaijo Denki TR-61A, TR-61B, and TR-61C; Solent Research/Gill; and METEK USA-1 sonic anemometer systems have been examined in a wind tunnel investigation. To determine their characteristics the anemometers were turned for 360° and tilted for up to ±8°. With a small Pitot tube the modification of the wind field by a Kaijo Denki TR-61B sensor is examined within its measuring volume. Extra measurements were executed to analyze the influence of turbulent wakes behind sensor parts windward of the measuring volume. Measurements from the Echival Field Experiment in Desertification Threatened Areas of 1994 are used to compare the measurements of Kaijo Denki TR-61C, Solent Research/Gill, and METEK USA-1 sonic anemometers in the atmospheric boundary layer. Struts and transducers are leading to decreased mean wind velocity, deviation, and higher variances depending on the probe geometry and dimension. Best results can be achieved with the Solent Research and Kaijo Denki TR-61B sensors. The Solent Research/Gill calibration procedure improves the mean horizontal wind velocity and direction significantly, but it should be used with caution because it increases variances especially at incoming flow directions where sensor-induced turbulence is at its highest. The TR-61C is still a usable instrument for the measurement of turbulent fluxes as long as the vertical sound path is not placed in the turbulent wake of the sensor foot. The direction characteristic of the TR-61A reduces its operational range but supplies most precise vertical wind velocity measurements. The METEK USA-1 has an interesting sensor geometry and user interface but needs further improvements in its electronics.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Ulrich Corsmeier, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universität Karlsruhe/Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. Email: ulrich.corsmeier@imk.fzk.de

Abstract

Responses of Kaijo Denki TR-61A, TR-61B, and TR-61C; Solent Research/Gill; and METEK USA-1 sonic anemometer systems have been examined in a wind tunnel investigation. To determine their characteristics the anemometers were turned for 360° and tilted for up to ±8°. With a small Pitot tube the modification of the wind field by a Kaijo Denki TR-61B sensor is examined within its measuring volume. Extra measurements were executed to analyze the influence of turbulent wakes behind sensor parts windward of the measuring volume. Measurements from the Echival Field Experiment in Desertification Threatened Areas of 1994 are used to compare the measurements of Kaijo Denki TR-61C, Solent Research/Gill, and METEK USA-1 sonic anemometers in the atmospheric boundary layer. Struts and transducers are leading to decreased mean wind velocity, deviation, and higher variances depending on the probe geometry and dimension. Best results can be achieved with the Solent Research and Kaijo Denki TR-61B sensors. The Solent Research/Gill calibration procedure improves the mean horizontal wind velocity and direction significantly, but it should be used with caution because it increases variances especially at incoming flow directions where sensor-induced turbulence is at its highest. The TR-61C is still a usable instrument for the measurement of turbulent fluxes as long as the vertical sound path is not placed in the turbulent wake of the sensor foot. The direction characteristic of the TR-61A reduces its operational range but supplies most precise vertical wind velocity measurements. The METEK USA-1 has an interesting sensor geometry and user interface but needs further improvements in its electronics.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Ulrich Corsmeier, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universität Karlsruhe/Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. Email: ulrich.corsmeier@imk.fzk.de

Save