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Listening to Raindrops from Underwater: An Acoustic Disdrometer

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  • 1 Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
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Abstract

Different sized raindrops splashing on a water surface produce sound underwater that is distinctive and can be used to measure the drop size distribution in the rain. Five acoustically significant raindrop sizes are described. An inversion of the underwater sound to measure the drop size distribution in the rain is described and demonstrated. Limitations to the inversion include problems associated with the relative loudness of the largest drops (diameter over 3.5 mm), the relative quietness of the medium drops (diameter 1.2–2.0 mm), and the influence of wind to suppress the signal from the otherwise remarkably loud small drops (diameter 0.8–1.2 mm). Various measures of rainfall, including rainfall rate, equivalent radar reflectivity, median drop size, and other integrated moments of the drop size distribution are measured acoustically and used to examine rainfall research issues. The relationship between equivalent reflectivity and rainfall rate, the ZR diagram, is partitioned acoustically showing that parts of this diagram are occupied by rainfall containing specific drop populations. Rainfall type can be classified acoustically. And because of its relatively large catchment area, high temporal resolution analysis of rainfall is possible. This technique has inherent application in remote oceanic regions where measurements of rainfall are needed to help establish knowledge of the global distribution and intensity of rainfall.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Jeffrey A. Nystuen, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105-6698. Email: nystuen@apl.washington.edu

Abstract

Different sized raindrops splashing on a water surface produce sound underwater that is distinctive and can be used to measure the drop size distribution in the rain. Five acoustically significant raindrop sizes are described. An inversion of the underwater sound to measure the drop size distribution in the rain is described and demonstrated. Limitations to the inversion include problems associated with the relative loudness of the largest drops (diameter over 3.5 mm), the relative quietness of the medium drops (diameter 1.2–2.0 mm), and the influence of wind to suppress the signal from the otherwise remarkably loud small drops (diameter 0.8–1.2 mm). Various measures of rainfall, including rainfall rate, equivalent radar reflectivity, median drop size, and other integrated moments of the drop size distribution are measured acoustically and used to examine rainfall research issues. The relationship between equivalent reflectivity and rainfall rate, the ZR diagram, is partitioned acoustically showing that parts of this diagram are occupied by rainfall containing specific drop populations. Rainfall type can be classified acoustically. And because of its relatively large catchment area, high temporal resolution analysis of rainfall is possible. This technique has inherent application in remote oceanic regions where measurements of rainfall are needed to help establish knowledge of the global distribution and intensity of rainfall.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Jeffrey A. Nystuen, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105-6698. Email: nystuen@apl.washington.edu

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