A Correction Method for Turbulence Measurements with a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler

D. Hurther Laboratoire de Recherches Hydrauliques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

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U. Lemmin Laboratoire de Recherches Hydrauliques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Abstract

A method is proposed to reduce the noise contribution to mean turbulence parameters obtained by 3D acoustic Doppler velocity profiler measurements. It is based on a noise spectrum reconstruction from cross-spectra evaluations of two independent and simultaneous measurements of the same vertical velocity component over the whole water depth. The noise spectra and the noise variances are calculated and removed for the three fluctuating velocity components measured in turbulent, open-channel flow. The corrected turbulence spectra show a −5/3 slope over the whole inertial subrange delimited by the frequency band of the device, while the uncorrected turbulence spectra have flat high-frequency regions typical for noise effects. This method does not require any hypothesis on the flow characteristics nor does it depend on device-dependent parameters. The corrected profiles of turbulence intensities, turbulent kinetic energy, shear stress, and turbulent energy balance equation terms, such as production, transport, and dissipation, are in better agreement with different semitheoretical formulas and other measurements from the literature than those from the uncorrected data. Combined with the use of a phase array emitter, the proposed correction method allows measurements with a relative error under 10% in the outer flow region. The corrected inner flow region measurements are still affected by errors that may originate from spatial averaging effects within the sample volume due to the high local velocity gradient or the lack of validity of the universal laws concerning turbulence quantities over a rough bed.

Corresponding author address: Ulrich Lemmin, LRH-DGC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Email: ulrich.lemmin@epfl.ch

Abstract

A method is proposed to reduce the noise contribution to mean turbulence parameters obtained by 3D acoustic Doppler velocity profiler measurements. It is based on a noise spectrum reconstruction from cross-spectra evaluations of two independent and simultaneous measurements of the same vertical velocity component over the whole water depth. The noise spectra and the noise variances are calculated and removed for the three fluctuating velocity components measured in turbulent, open-channel flow. The corrected turbulence spectra show a −5/3 slope over the whole inertial subrange delimited by the frequency band of the device, while the uncorrected turbulence spectra have flat high-frequency regions typical for noise effects. This method does not require any hypothesis on the flow characteristics nor does it depend on device-dependent parameters. The corrected profiles of turbulence intensities, turbulent kinetic energy, shear stress, and turbulent energy balance equation terms, such as production, transport, and dissipation, are in better agreement with different semitheoretical formulas and other measurements from the literature than those from the uncorrected data. Combined with the use of a phase array emitter, the proposed correction method allows measurements with a relative error under 10% in the outer flow region. The corrected inner flow region measurements are still affected by errors that may originate from spatial averaging effects within the sample volume due to the high local velocity gradient or the lack of validity of the universal laws concerning turbulence quantities over a rough bed.

Corresponding author address: Ulrich Lemmin, LRH-DGC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Email: ulrich.lemmin@epfl.ch

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