A High-Precision Fast-Response Airborne CO2 Analyzer for In Situ Sampling from the Surface to the Middle Stratosphere

B. C. Daube Jr. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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K. A. Boering Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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A. E. Andrews Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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S. C. Wofsy Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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Abstract

Two in situ CO2 analyzers have been developed for deployment on the NASA ER-2 aircraft and on stratospheric balloons. The ER-2 instrument has had more than 150 flights during 21 deployments from 1992 to 2000, resulting in a dataset with nearly pole-to-pole coverage that includes data from all seasons in both hemispheres except austral summer. In-flight calibrations show that the typical long-term (i.e., flight-to-flight) precision of the instruments is better than ±0.1 ppmv. The flight standards are traceable to standards held by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. The balloon instrument has had eight balloon flights since September 1996, providing the first in situ observations of CO2 above ∼21 km. In addition, the balloon instrument has been flown on board a Cessna Citation II aircraft for sampling between the surface and 10 km. In this paper, the instrumentation and calibration procedures for both instruments are described in detail. An intercomparison of the two instruments during the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region In Summer (POLARIS) project showed that, on average, the instruments agreed to within 0.05 ppmv.

Current affiliation: Departments of Chemistry and of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Current affiliation: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Corresponding author address: Arlyn E. Andrews, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mailstop 916.0, Greenbelt, MD 20771. Email: andrews@code916.gsfc.nasa.gov

Abstract

Two in situ CO2 analyzers have been developed for deployment on the NASA ER-2 aircraft and on stratospheric balloons. The ER-2 instrument has had more than 150 flights during 21 deployments from 1992 to 2000, resulting in a dataset with nearly pole-to-pole coverage that includes data from all seasons in both hemispheres except austral summer. In-flight calibrations show that the typical long-term (i.e., flight-to-flight) precision of the instruments is better than ±0.1 ppmv. The flight standards are traceable to standards held by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. The balloon instrument has had eight balloon flights since September 1996, providing the first in situ observations of CO2 above ∼21 km. In addition, the balloon instrument has been flown on board a Cessna Citation II aircraft for sampling between the surface and 10 km. In this paper, the instrumentation and calibration procedures for both instruments are described in detail. An intercomparison of the two instruments during the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region In Summer (POLARIS) project showed that, on average, the instruments agreed to within 0.05 ppmv.

Current affiliation: Departments of Chemistry and of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Current affiliation: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland

Corresponding author address: Arlyn E. Andrews, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mailstop 916.0, Greenbelt, MD 20771. Email: andrews@code916.gsfc.nasa.gov

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