• Alberoni, P. P., and Coauthors, 2002: Quality and assimilation of radar data for NWP—A review. COST-717 Working Doc. EUR 20600. [Available online at http://www.smhi.se/cost717.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Armijo, L., 1969: A theory for the determination of wind and precipitation velocities with Doppler radars. J. Atmos. Sci, 26 , 570573.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boegel, W., and Baumann R. , 1991: Test and calibration of the DLR Falcon wind measuring system by maneuvers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 8 , 518.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R. A., and Peace R. L. , 1968: Mesoanalysis of convective storm utilizing observations from two Doppler radars. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, QC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 7–14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carbone, R. E., and Coauthors, 1980: The multiple Doppler radar workshop, November 1979. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 61 , 11691203.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Elia, R., and Zawadzki I. , 2000: Sidelobe contamination in bistatic radars. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 17 , 13131329.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Elia, R., and Zawadzki I. , 2001: Optimal layout of a bistatic radar network. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 18 , 11841194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedrich, K., and Caumont O. , 2004: Dealiasing Doppler velocity measured by a bistatic radar network. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 21 , 717729.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedrich, K., and Hagen M. , 2004a: On the use of advanced Doppler radar techniques to determine horizontal wind fields for operational weather surveillance. Meteor. Appl.,11, 155–171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedrich, K., and Hagen M. , 2004b: Wind synthesis and quality control of multiple-Doppler-derived horizontal wind-fields. J. Appl. Meteor, 43 , 3857.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, C. N., and Houze R. A. , 2001: A real-time four-dimensional Doppler dealiasing scheme. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 18 , 16741683.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeMone, M. A., and Coauthors, 2000: Land–atmosphere interaction research, early results, and opportunities in the Walnut River watershed in southeast Kansas: CASES and ABLE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 81 , 757779.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lhermitte, R. M., 1968: New developments in Doppler radar methods. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, QC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 14–17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lugauer, M., and Coauthors, 2003: An overview of the VERTIKATOR project and results of alpine pumping. Preprints, Int. Conf. on Alpine Meteorology, Brigg, Switzerland, MeteoSwiss Publ. 66, 129–132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meischner, P., Ed.,. 2003: Weather Radar: Principles and Advanced Applications. Springer-Verlag, 300 pp.

  • Mohr, C. G., Miller L. , Vaughan R. , and Frank H. , 1986: The merger of mesoscale datasets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analysis. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 3 , 143161.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Protat, A., and Zawadzki I. , 1999: A variational method for real-time retrieval of three-dimensional wind field from multiple-Doppler bistatic radar network data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 16 , 432449.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quante, M., Brown P. R. A. , Baumann R. , Guillemet B. , and Hignett P. , 1996: Three aircraft intercomparisions of dynamical and thermodynamical measurements during the ‘Pre-EUCREX’ campaign. Beitr. Phys. Atmos, 69 , 129146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, R. R., 1990: The early years of Doppler radar in meteorology. Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 122– 129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satoh, S., and Wurman J. , 1999: Accuracy of composite wind fields derived from a bistatic multiple-Doppler radar network. Preprints, 29th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, QC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 221–224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satoh, S., and Wurman J. , 2003: Accuracy of wind fields observed by a bistatic Doppler radar network. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 20 , 10771091.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schreiber, K-J., 1998: Der Radarverbund des Deutschen Wetterdienstes. Annalen der Meteorologie 38: Herbstschule Radarmeteorologie 1998, Deutscher Wetterdienst, 47–65.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schroth, A. C., Chandra M. S. , and Meischner P. , 1988: A C-band coherent polarimetric radar for precipitation and cloud physics research. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 5 , 803822.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoelinga, M. T., Hobbs P. V. , Mass C. F. , Locatelli J. D. , Bond N. A. , Colle B. A. , Houze J. R. A. , and Rangno A. , 2003: Improvement of Microphysical Prameterization through Observational Verification Experiment (IMPROVE). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 17 , 18071826.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takaya, Y., and Nakazato M. , 2002: Error estimation of the synthesized two-dimensional horizontal velocity in a bistatic Doppler radar system. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 19 , 7479.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WMO, cited 2002: Final report of expert team meeting on observational data requirements and redesign of the global observing system. [Available online at http://www.wmo.ch/web/www/reports.html.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., 1994: Vector winds from a single-transmitter bistatic dual-Doppler radar network. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 75 , 983994.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., Heckman S. , and Boccippio D. , 1993: A bistatic multiple-Doppler radar network. J. Appl. Meteor, 32 , 18021814.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J., Randall M. , Frush C. L. , Loew E. , and Holloway C. L. , 1994: Design of a bistatic dual-Doppler radar for retrieving vector winds using one transmitter and a remote low-gain passive receiver. Proc. IEEE, Special Issue on Remote Sensing Instruments for Environmental Research, Vol. 82, 1861–1872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zrnić, D. S., 1996: Weather radar polarimetry—Trends toward operational applications. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 77 , 15291534.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 296 232 0
PDF Downloads 80 53 2

Evaluation of Wind Vectors Measured by a Bistatic Doppler Radar Network

View More View Less
  • 1 Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany
Restricted access

Abstract

By installing and linking additional receivers to a monostatic Doppler radar, several wind components can be measured and combined into a wind vector field. Such a bistatic Doppler radar network was developed in 1993 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and has been in operation at different research departments. Since then, the accuracy of wind vectors has been investigated mainly based on theoretical examinations. Observational analysis of the accuracy has been limited to comparisons of dual-Doppler-derived wind vectors always including the monostatic Doppler radar. Intercomparisons to independent wind measurements have not yet been accomplished. In order to become an alternative to monostatic multiple–Doppler applications, the reliability of wind vector fields has to be also proven by observational analysis. In this paper wind vectors measured by a bistatic Doppler radar network are evaluated by 1) internally comparing results of bistatic receivers; 2) comparing with independent wind measurements observed by a second Doppler radar; and 3) comparing with in situ flight measurements achieved with a research aircraft during stratiform precipitation events. Investigations show how reliable bistatically measured wind fields are and how they can contribute highly to research studies, weather surveillance, and forecasting. As a result of the intercomparison, the instrumentation error of the bistatic receivers can be assumed to be within 1 m s−1. Differences between bistatic Doppler radar and independent measurements range mainly between 2 and 3 m s−1.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Katja Friedrich, NOAA/OAR/ ETL, Mail Code R/ET7, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 82234.Email: Katja.Friedrich@noaa.gov

Abstract

By installing and linking additional receivers to a monostatic Doppler radar, several wind components can be measured and combined into a wind vector field. Such a bistatic Doppler radar network was developed in 1993 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and has been in operation at different research departments. Since then, the accuracy of wind vectors has been investigated mainly based on theoretical examinations. Observational analysis of the accuracy has been limited to comparisons of dual-Doppler-derived wind vectors always including the monostatic Doppler radar. Intercomparisons to independent wind measurements have not yet been accomplished. In order to become an alternative to monostatic multiple–Doppler applications, the reliability of wind vector fields has to be also proven by observational analysis. In this paper wind vectors measured by a bistatic Doppler radar network are evaluated by 1) internally comparing results of bistatic receivers; 2) comparing with independent wind measurements observed by a second Doppler radar; and 3) comparing with in situ flight measurements achieved with a research aircraft during stratiform precipitation events. Investigations show how reliable bistatically measured wind fields are and how they can contribute highly to research studies, weather surveillance, and forecasting. As a result of the intercomparison, the instrumentation error of the bistatic receivers can be assumed to be within 1 m s−1. Differences between bistatic Doppler radar and independent measurements range mainly between 2 and 3 m s−1.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Katja Friedrich, NOAA/OAR/ ETL, Mail Code R/ET7, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 82234.Email: Katja.Friedrich@noaa.gov

Save