• AATSR Project, 1996: Test report for FM02 FPA polarisation response. AATSR Project document PO-TR-AUS-AT-1013, M. Petkovic, Ed., 21 pp. [Available from Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhandari, S. M., and Prakash W. J. , 1996: Sun glint in INSAT–VHRR images. Int. J. Remote Sens, 17 , 12751277.

  • Brush, R. J. H., 1993: Anomalous effects of sun glint on the AVHRR in the NOAA-12 satellite. Int. J. Remote Sens, 14 , 629634.

  • Cox, C., and Munk W. , 1954: Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter. J. Mar. Res, 13 , 198227.

  • Cracknell, A. P., 1993: A method for the correction of sea-surface temperatures derived from satellite thermal infrared data in an area of sun glint. Int. J. Remote Sens, 14 , 38.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hale, G. M., and Querry M. R. , 1973: Optical constants of water in the 200 nm to 200 μm wavelength region. Appl. Opt, 12 , 555563.

  • Masuda, K., Takashima T. , and Takayama Y. , 1988: Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface temperature in the infrared regions. Remote Sens. Environ, 24 , 313329.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McClatchey, R. A., Fenn R. W. , Selby J. E. A. , Volz F. E. , and Garing J. S. , 1972: Optical properties of the atmosphere. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory Report AFCRL-72-0497, 116 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nath, A. N., Rao M. V. , and Rao K. H. , 1993: Observed high-temperatures in the sun glint area over the North Indian Ocean. Int. J. Remote Sens, 14 , 849853.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O'Brien, D. M., and Mitchell R. M. , 1988: Retrieval of surface wind-speed and aerosol optical depth over the oceans from AVHRR images of sun glint. J. Appl. Meteor, 27 , 13951403.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parkes, I. M., 2000: The Mutsu Bay Experiment: Validation of ATSR-1 and ATSR-2 sea surface temperature. Int. J. Remote Sens, 21 , 34453460.

  • Saunders, P. M., 1967: Aerial measurement of sea surface temperature in the infrared. J. Geophys. Res, 72 , 41094117.

  • Singh, S. M., and Ferrier G. , 1997: Observation of intense sun glint in 3.7 μm channel of the AVHRR. Int. J. Remote Sens, 18 , 35213533.

  • Watts, P. D., Allen M. R. , and Nightingale T. J. , 1996: Wind-speed effects on sea-surface emission and reflection for the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 13 , 126141.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watts, P. D., Smith D. L. , and Závody A. M. , 1997: Calibration and validation of the ATSR-2 visible channels. CLRC Internal Report, P. D. Watts, Ed., 51 pp. [Available from Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Závody, A. M., Mutlow C. T. , and Llewellyn-Jones D. T. , 1995: A radiative transfer model for sea surface temperature retrieval for the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR). J. Geophys. Res, 100 , 937952.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Závody, A. M., Watts P. D. , Smith D. L. , and Mutlow C. T. , 1998: A novel method for calibrating the ATSR-2 1.6-μm channel using simultaneous measurements made in the 3.7-μm channel in sun glint. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 15 , 12431252.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zissis, G. J., Ed.,. 1993: The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, Vol. 1. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 373 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 0 0 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0

Sun Glint Contamination in ATSR-2 Data: Comparison of Observations and Values Calculated from the Measured 1.6-μm Reflectivities

View More View Less
  • 1 Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
Restricted access

Abstract

The effect of radiation from the sun reflected at the sea surface on the 11- and 12-μm brightness temperatures measured by the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer ATSR-2 has been investigated. An attempt was made to determine its magnitude by comparing nadir-view and forward-view brightness temperature differences in glint and nonglint regions, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions computed by using the 1.6-μm reflectivity data. Atmospheric absorption and the polarization sensitivity of the instrument have been fully taken into account.

The results show that temperature increases of a few tens of millikelvins are possible even over the open ocean, and that they correlate well with the measured 1.6-μm reflectivity values. A scheme for correcting the sun glint contamination is proposed.

Corresponding author address: Dr. A. R. Birks, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, United Kingdom. Email: a.r.birks@rl.ac.uk

Abstract

The effect of radiation from the sun reflected at the sea surface on the 11- and 12-μm brightness temperatures measured by the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer ATSR-2 has been investigated. An attempt was made to determine its magnitude by comparing nadir-view and forward-view brightness temperature differences in glint and nonglint regions, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions computed by using the 1.6-μm reflectivity data. Atmospheric absorption and the polarization sensitivity of the instrument have been fully taken into account.

The results show that temperature increases of a few tens of millikelvins are possible even over the open ocean, and that they correlate well with the measured 1.6-μm reflectivity values. A scheme for correcting the sun glint contamination is proposed.

Corresponding author address: Dr. A. R. Birks, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX, United Kingdom. Email: a.r.birks@rl.ac.uk

Save